Inventing Chemistry

Author: John C. Powers
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226677605
Format: PDF
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In Inventing Chemistry, historian John C. Powers turns his attention to Herman Boerhaave (1668–1738), a Dutch medical and chemical professor whose work reached a wide, educated audience and became the template for chemical knowledge in the eighteenth century. The primary focus of this study is Boerhaave’s educational philosophy, and Powers traces its development from Boerhaave’s early days as a student in Leiden through his publication of the Elementa chemiae in 1732. Powers reveals how Boerhaave restructured and reinterpreted various practices from diverse chemical traditions—including craft chemistry, Paracelsian medical chemistry, and alchemy—shaping them into a chemical course that conformed to the pedagogical and philosophical norms of Leiden’s medical faculty. In doing so, Boerhaave gave his chemistry a coherent organizational structure and philosophical foundation and thus transformed an artisanal practice into an academic discipline. Inventing Chemistry will be essential reading for historians of chemistry, medicine, and academic life.

Alchemy Tried in the Fire

Author: William R. Newman
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226577023
Format: PDF
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Winner of the 2005 Pfizer Prize from the History of Science Society. What actually took place in the private laboratory of a mid-seventeenth century alchemist? How did he direct his quest after the secrets of Nature? What instruments and theoretical principles did he employ? Using, as their guide, the previously misunderstood interactions between Robert Boyle, widely known as "the father of chemistry," and George Starkey, an alchemist and the most prominent American scientific writer before Benjamin Franklin as their guide, Newman and Principe reveal the hitherto hidden laboratory operations of a famous alchemist and argue that many of the principles and practices characteristic of modern chemistry derive from alchemy. By analyzing Starkey's extraordinary laboratory notebooks, the authors show how this American "chymist" translated the wildly figurative writings of traditional alchemy into quantitative, carefully reasoned laboratory practice—and then encoded his own work in allegorical, secretive treatises under the name of Eirenaeus Philalethes. The intriguing "mystic" Joan Baptista Van Helmont—a favorite of Starkey, Boyle, and even of Lavoisier—emerges from this study as a surprisingly central figure in seventeenth-century "chymistry." A common emphasis on quantification, material production, and analysis/synthesis, the authors argue, illustrates a continuity of goals and practices from late medieval alchemy down to and beyond the Chemical Revolution. For anyone who wants to understand how alchemy was actually practiced during the Scientific Revolution and what it contributed to the development of modern chemistry, Alchemy Tried in the Fire will be a veritable philosopher's stone.

The Secrets of Alchemy

Author: Lawrence Principe
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226682951
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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An accessible history of alchemy by a leading world authority explores its development and relationship with myriad disciplines and pursuits, tracing its heyday in early modern Europe while profiling some of history's most colorful alchemists and describing the author's recreation of famous alchemy recipes.

Herman Boerhaave 1668 1738

Author: Rina Knoeff
Publisher: Edita Publishing House of the Royal
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub
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Herman Boerhaave, who held professorships in medicine, botany, and chemistry at the University of Leiden, is often considered the most important medical teacher after Galen. Known during his lifetime as "The Teacher of Europe," his reputation was purported to have reached all the way to China. Previously, historians of science and medicine have stressed the mechanical aspects of his teachings, but have neglected the principles behind them, many of which are alien to modern science. This book shows that Boerhaave's natural philosophy and methodology were rooted in his deep religious faith, and that Calvinism guided much of his scientific thought.

Alchemy and Chemistry in the 16th and 17th Centuries

Author: Piyo Rattansi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401107785
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The present volume owes its ongm to a Colloquium on "Alchemy and Chemistry in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries", held at the Warburg Institute on 26th and 27th July 1989. The Colloquium focused on a number of selected themes during a closely defined chronological interval: on the relation of alchemy and chemistry to medicine, philosophy, religion, and to the corpuscular philosophy, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The relations between Medicina and alchemy in the Lullian treatises were examined in the opening paper by Michela Pereira, based on researches on unpublished manuscript sources in the period between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is several decades since the researches of R.F. Multhauf gave a prominent role to Johannes de Rupescissa in linking medicine and alchemy through the concept of a quinta essentia. Michela Pereira explores the significance of the Lullian tradition in this development and draws attention to the fact that the early Paracelsians had themselves recognized a family resemblance between the works of Paracelsus and Roger Bacon's scientia experimentalis and, indeed, a continuity with the Lullian tradition.

Chemistry

Author: Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1908977620
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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What do you associate with chemistry? Explosions, innovative materials, plastics, pollution? The public's confused and contradictory conception of chemistry as basic science, industrial producer and polluter contributes to what we present in this book as chemistry's image as an impure science. Historically, chemistry has always been viewed as impure both in terms of its academic status and its role in transforming modern society. While exploring the history of this science we argue for a characteristic philosophical approach that distinguishes chemistry from physics. This reflection leads us to a philosophical stance that we characterise as operational realism. In this new expanded edition we delve deeper into the questions of properties and potentials that are so important for this philosophy that is based on the manipulation of matter rather than the construction of theories. Sample Chapter(s) Chapter 1: Introduction: Chemistry and Its Discontents (61 KB) Contents: Introduction: Chemistry and Its DiscontentsChemistry and PollutionThe Damnation of the AlchemistThe Space of the LaboratoryProof in the LaboratoryChemistry Creates Its ObjectA Duel between Two Conceptions of MatterChemistry versus PhysicsAtoms or ElementsPositivism and ChemistryAtoms as FictionsAgency and RelationsTaming the NanoworldTowards a Responsible Chemistry Readership: Students, professionals, graduate of chemistry and philosophy. Keywords:Philosophy of Chemistry;History of ChemistryKey Features:It is accessible to a wide range of readersIt treats the philosophy of chemistry by means of a new approachIt provides the means for contextualizing current concerns with the chemical industryReviews:“We can learn a great deal that has hitherto remained hidden – not just about chemistry of the past, but about its promise and perils for the future. This is a book that will instruct and enlighten not just historians and philosophers of science, but also chemists (both in training and in practice).”Alan J. Rocke Distinguished University Professor of History Case Western Reserve University Reviews of the First Edition: “In this book Bensaude-Vincent and Simon offer up a refreshing and innovative introduction to the history and philosophy of chemistry, the like of which is not to be found anywhere in the extant literature … the authors locate chemistry squarely in the material and social worlds of its practices, and a sustained commitment to that contextualization gives their philosophical discourse a distinctive flavour. This book is not only an exciting addition to the literature in the history and philosophy of chemistry, but a great contribution to the philosophy and history of science and technology in general.” Hasok Chang Hans Rausing Professor of History and Philosophy of Science University of Cambridge “In clear and simple prose the authors provide a richly historically-informed interpretation of the philosophy of chemistry for student and scholar alike. Underlying the whole book such apparent contradictions as the tension between beneficial claims and environmental criticisms are treated as fruitful sources of insight for a new perspective on science.”Dr Robert Bud Keeper of Science and Medicine The Science Museum, London

Why Parties

Author: John H. Aldrich
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226012751
Format: PDF, ePub
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Since its first appearance fifteen years ago, Why Parties? has become essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the nature of American political parties. In the interim, the party system has undergone some radical changes. In this landmark book, now rewritten for the new millennium, John H. Aldrich goes beyond the clamor of arguments over whether American political parties are in resurgence or decline and undertakes a wholesale reexamination of the foundations of the American party system. Surveying critical episodes in the development of American political parties—from their formation in the 1790s to the Civil War—Aldrich shows how they serve to combat three fundamental problems of democracy: how to regulate the number of people seeking public office, how to mobilize voters, and how to achieve and maintain the majorities needed to accomplish goals once in office. Aldrich brings this innovative account up to the present by looking at the profound changes in the character of political parties since World War II, especially in light of ongoing contemporary transformations, including the rise of the Republican Party in the South, and what those changes accomplish, such as the Obama Health Care plan. Finally, Why Parties? A Second Look offers a fuller consideration of party systems in general, especially the two-party system in the United States, and explains why this system is necessary for effective democracy.

The Germ of an Idea

Author: Margaret DeLacy
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137575298
Format: PDF, ePub
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Contagionism is an old idea, but gained new life in Restoration Britain. Germ of an Idea considers British contagionism in its religious, social, political and professional context from the Great Plague of London to the adoption of smallpox inoculation. It shows how ideas about contagion changed medicine and the understanding of acute diseases.

Pathways to Modern Chemical Physics

Author: Salvatore Califano
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364228180X
Format: PDF, Docs
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In this historical volume Salvatore Califano traces the developments of ideas and theories in physical and theoretical chemistry throughout the 20th century. This seldom-told narrative provides details of topics from thermodynamics to atomic structure, radioactivity and quantum chemistry. Califano’s expertise as a physical chemist allows him to judge the historical developments from the point of view of modern chemistry. This detailed and unique historical narrative is fascinating for chemists working in the fields of physical chemistry and is also a useful resource for science historians who will enjoy access to material not previously dealt with in a coherent way.