Ionic Equilibrium

Author: James Newton Butler
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471585268
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A celebrated classic in the field updated and expanded to include the latest computerized calculation techniques In 1964, James N. Butler published a book in which he presented some simple graphical methods of performing acid-base, solubility, and complex formation equilibrium calculations. Today, both the book and these methods have become standard for generations of students and professionals in fields ranging from environmental science to analytical chemistry. Named a "Citation Classic" by the Science Citation Index in 1990, the book, Ionic Equilibrium, continues to be one of the most widely used texts on the subject. So why tamper with near-perfection by attempting a revision of that classic? The reason is simple-- the recent rapid development and wide availability of personal computers. In the revised Ionic Equilibrium, Dr. Butler updates his 1964 work by abandoning the slide rule and graph paper for the PC spreadsheet. He also expands the original coverage with extensive material on basic principles and recent research. The first part of Ionic Equilibrium is devoted to the fundamentals of acid-base, solubility, and complex formation equilibria. In the second part, the author discusses oxidation-reduction equilibria, develops the principles of carbon dioxide equilibria, presents case studies demonstrating the ways in which carbon dioxide equilibria are used in physiology and oceanography, and explores the possibility of a pH scale for brines. The concluding chapter, written by David R. Cogley, gives examples of general computer programs that are capable of performing equilibrium calculations on systems of many components. Replete with real-world examples, details of important calculations, and practical problems, Ionic Equilibrium is an ideal course text for students of environmental chemistry, engineering, or health; analytical chemistry; oceanography; geochemistry; biochemistry; physical chemistry; and clinical chemistry. It is also a valuable working resource for professionals in those fields as well as industrial chemists involved with solution chemistry.

Ionic Equilibria in Analytical Chemistry

Author: Jean-Louis Burgot
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441983813
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book of general analytical chemistry – as opposed to instrumental analysis or separation methods – in aqueous solutions is focuses on fundamentals, which is an area too often overlooked in the literature. Explanations abound of the chemical and physical principles of different operations of chemical analysis in aqueous solutions. Once these principle are firmly established, numerous examples of applications are also given.

Carbon Dioxide Equilibria and Their Applications

Author: James N. Butler
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780873716246
Format: PDF, ePub
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Carbon dioxide, bicarbonate ion, and carbonate ion comprise the most important acid-base system in natural waters, and the equilibria between them regulate the pH of seawater, as well as most rainwater, stream water, river water, and groundwater. Carbon Dioxide Equilibria and Their Applications provides a clear, compact presentation of this topic, which is central to geochemistry and environmental engineering. It emphasizes a rigorous mathematical and thermodynamic basis for calculations and their application to realistic problems. The book's first four chapters present the basic equations, mathematical techniques for visualizing and manipulating them, and data on equilibrium constants and activity coefficients. These are presented in the general context of acid-base titration and solubility of CaCO3. The remaining chapters show how these concepts and techniques are applied to geochemistry and oceanography, in addition to their applications to water conditioning. Specific topics discussed include acid rain, freshwater, seawater, carbonate sediments in the deep oceans, the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on the oceans, estuarine waters, brines, hydrothermal solutions, pH adjustment, prediction of calcium carbonate saturation, corrosion inhibition, and water softening.

Modern Techniques in Applied Molecular Spectroscopy

Author: Francis M. Mirabella
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471123590
Format: PDF
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A complete guide to choosing and using the best analytical technique for the job at hand Today′s new generation of spectroscopic instrumentation allows for more accurate and varied measurements than ever before. At the same time, increasingly powerful, user–friendly PC hardware and software make running those instruments relative child′s play. However, although they may have solved many of the problems traditionally associated with conducting molecular spectroscopic analyses, these refinements tend to obscure inherent technical challenges which, if not taken into consideration, can seriously undermine a research initiative. Modern Techniques in Applied Molecular Spectroscopy gives scientists and technicians the knowledge they need to address those challenges and to make optimal selection and use of contemporary molecular spectroscopic techniques and technologies. While editor Francis Mirabella and contributors provide ample background information about how and why individual techniques work, they concentrate on practical considerations of crucial concern to researchers working in industry. For each technique covered, they provide expert guidance on method selection, sample preparation, troubleshooting, data handling and analysis, and more. Adhering principally to mid–IR molecular spectroscopic techniques, they clearly describe the guiding principles behind, characteristics of, and suitable applications for transmission spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopies, photoacoustic spectroscopy, infrared and Raman microspectroscopy, fiber optic techniques, and emission spectroscopy. Modern Techniques in Applied Molecular Spectroscopy is an indispensable working resource for analytical scientists and technicians working in an array of industries.

Thermodynamics Solubility and Environmental Issues

Author: Trevor M. Letcher
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080481036
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Environmental problems are becoming an important aspect of our lives as industries grow apace with populations throughout the world. Thermodynamics, Solubility and Environmental Issues highlights some of the problems and shows how chemistry can help to reduce these them. The unifying theme is Solubility – the most basic and important of thermodynamic properties. This informative book looks at the importance and applications of solubility and thermodynamics, in understanding and in reducing chemical pollution in the environment. Written by experts in their respective fields and representing the latest findings in this very important and broad area. A collection of twenty-five chapters cover a wide range of topics including; mining, polymer manufacture and applications, radioactive wastes, industries in general, agro-chemicals, soil pollution and biology, together with the basic theory and recent developments in the modelling of environmental pollutants. Latest research into solving some of the most important environmental problems Covering new technologies, new chemicals and new processes eg, biodegradable polymers, ionic liquids and green chemistry Contains the basic theories and underlying importance of solubility

Ionic and Electrochemical Equilibria

Author: Michel Soustelle
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1848218699
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been paid to the rigor of mathematical developments. This sixth volume is made up of two parts. The first part focuses on the study of ionic equilibria in water or non-aqueous solvents. The following are then discussed in succession: the dissociation of electrolytes, solvents and solvation, acid-base equilibria, formation of complexes, redox equilibria and the problems of precipitation. Part 2 discusses electrochemical thermodynamics, with the study of two groups: electrodes and electrochemical cells. The book concludes with the study of potential-pH diagrams and their generalization in an aqueous or non-aqueous medium.

Collection of Problems in Physical Chemistry

Author: Jiří Bareš
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483159167
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Collection of Problems in Physical Chemistry provides illustrations and problems covering the field of physical chemistry. The material has been arranged into illustrations that are solved and supplemented by problems, thus enabling readers to determine the extent to which they have mastered each subject. Most of the illustrations and problems were taken from original papers, to which reference is made. The English edition of this book has been translated from the manuscript of the 2nd Czech edition. It has been changed slightly in some places and enlarged on in others on the basis of further experience gained in teaching physical chemistry at the Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague. The book begins with illustrations and problems on the atomic structure and the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. Subsequent chapters cover the kinetic theory of ideal gas; fundamentals of thermodynamics; states of matter; phase equilibrium; chemical equilibrium and third law of thermodynamics; electrochemistry; reaction kinetics; surface phenomena and colloidal systems; and molecular structure and physical properties.

Low Temperature Geochemistry

Author: Tu Guangzhi
Publisher: VSP
ISBN: 9789067642309
Format: PDF, ePub
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Low-temperature geochemistry -- a 'hot topic' in geochemistry at present -- deals with geological and chemical processes and the geochemical evolution of elements in nature below 200C, including the geochemical behaviour of elements in the processes of their extraction, remobilization, transport and mineralization at room temperature and below 0C. This book focuses on the low-temperature geochemical behaviour of precious metals, REE, some individual dispersed elements and some non-metallic elements and their minergenesis at low-temperatures. The book deals with the following topics: 1) geochemistry of selected low-temperature deposits or prospects (horizons); 2) geochemistry of elements during diagenesis, buried metamorphism and low-grade metamorphism; 3) remobilization, transport and precipitation of some ore-forming elements under low-temperature conditions; 4) water/rock interactions in low-temperature open systems