Isaac Newton on Mathematical Certainty and Method

Author: Niccolò Guicciardini
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262013177
Format: PDF, Kindle
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An analysis of Newton's mathematical work, from early discoveries to mature reflections, and a discussion of Newton's views on the role and nature of mathematics.

Science and Technology in the Global Cold War

Author: Naomi Oreskes
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262526530
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Cold War period saw a dramatic expansion of state-funded science and technology research. Government and military patronage shaped Cold War technoscientific practices, imposing methods that were project oriented, team based, and subject to national-security restrictions. These changes affected not just the arms race and the space race but also research in agriculture, biomedicine, computer science, ecology, meteorology, and other fields. This volume examines science and technology in the context of the Cold War, considering whether the new institutions and institutional arrangements that emerged globally constrained technoscientific inquiry or offered greater opportunities for it. The contributors find that whatever the particular science, and whatever the political system in which that science was operating, the knowledge that was produced bore some relation to the goals of the nation-state. These goals varied from nation to nation; weapons research was emphasized in the United States and the Soviet Union, for example, but in France and China scientific independence and self-reliance dominated. The contributors also consider to what extent the changes to science and technology practices in this era were produced by the specific politics, anxieties, and aspirations of the Cold War.ContributorsElena Aronova, Erik M. Conway, Angela N. H. Creager, David Kaiser, John Krige, Naomi Oreskes, George Reisch, Sigrid Schmalzer, Sonja D. Schmid, Matthew Shindell, Asif A. Siddiqi, Zuoyue Wang, Benjamin Wilson

The Psychophysical Ear

Author: Alexandra Hui
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262018381
Format: PDF, Docs
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An examination of how the scientific study of sound sensation became increasingly intertwined with musical aesthetics in nineteenth-century Germany and Austria. In the middle of the nineteenth century, German and Austrian concertgoers began to hear new rhythms and harmonies as non-Western musical ensembles began to make their way to European cities and classical music introduced new compositional trends. At the same time, leading physicists, physiologists, and psychologists were preoccupied with understanding the sensory perception of sound from a psychophysical perspective, seeking a direct and measurable relationship between physical stimulation and physical sensation. These scientists incorporated specific sounds into their experiments--the musical sounds listened to by upper middle class, liberal Germans and Austrians. In The Psychophysical Ear, Alexandra Hui examines this formative historical moment, when the worlds of natural science and music coalesced around the psychophysics of sound sensation, and new musical aesthetics were interwoven with new conceptions of sound and hearing. Hui, a historian and a classically trained musician, describes the network of scientists, musicians, music critics, musicologists, and composers involved in this redefinition of listening. She identifies a source of tension for the psychophysicists: the seeming irreconcilability between the idealist, universalizing goals of their science and the increasingly undeniable historical and cultural contingency of musical aesthetics. The convergence of the respective projects of the psychophysical study of sound sensation and the aesthetics of music was, however, fleeting. By the beginning of the twentieth century, with the professionalization of such fields as experimental psychology and ethnomusicology and the proliferation of new and different kinds of music, the aesthetic dimension of psychophysics began to disappear.

Heredity Explored

Author: Staffan Müller-Wille
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262034433
Format: PDF, Docs
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Investigations of how the understanding of heredity developed in scientific, medical, agro-industrial, and political contexts of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Die Mechanisierung des Weltbildes

Author: Eduard J. Dijksterhuis
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 364262037X
Format: PDF
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Das Buch von Dijksterhuis erschien in deutscher Sprache erstmals 1956. Der Autor gibt einen umfassenden Überblick über die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften vom Altertum über das Mittelalter bis zu der Geburt der klassischen Naturwissenschaft. Neben den eigentlichen naturwissenschaftlichen Fragestellungen finden auch philosophische und geisteswissenschaftliche Aspekte der behandelten Zeitabschnitte Berücksichtigung. Professor Dr. Heinz Maier-Leibnitz schreibt in seinem Geleitwort: "Aber wenn uns die Wissenschaftsgeschichte helfen soll, dann darf sie nicht auf denselben modischen Bahnen wandeln wie die meisten, die heute über Wissenschaft schreiben. Deshalb freue ich mich, daß das Buch von Dijksterhuis wieder aufgelegt wird. Er ist nicht modisch. Ganz sorgfältig dringt er in das Denken früherer Jahrhunderte ein. Wer ihm folgt, und es ist ein Vergnügen, ihm zu folgen, wird viel für sein Denken profitieren."

Verborgene Zahl Verborgener Gott

Author: Marco Böhlandt
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden gmbh
ISBN:
Format: PDF
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Nicholas of Cusa lived, and continues to reside, in extremes: during his lifetime he was already considered one of the most influential personalities of the Occident, but in death this German theologian, philosopher, champion of the church, and cardinal was transfigured into a true beacon of the dark medieval times. He managed to overcome the hurdles of scholarly dogmatism and religious zeal, and was a harbinger of an epoch of curiosity and intellectual awakening. Important also was the super elevation of Nicholas' convictions that natural sciences and mathematics held the key to the highest humanly possible achievements. Over centuries, his credo was pushed to the brink of oblivion, only to find a resurgence as a "Cusanus - Renaissance" in the late 19th and 20th centuries. How influential Nicholas of Cusa has been on our techno-scientific and progressively focused contemporary consciousness, is, however still quite an open and exciting question, one to which this book will try and contribute. German text.