Justice Through Diversity

Author: Michael J. Sweeney
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442271175
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Arguably the most transformative force in contemporary society is the commitment to justice through diversity. A prime example is the change justice through diversity has wrought on who enters, teaches and administers the university. It has changed the content of what is taught and the mission statements that define the purpose of higher education. What is rarely defined, however, is justice and how it is related to diversity. If justice is equality, are all differences equal? Are all differences in race, gender, sexual orientation, national origin, ethnicity, religion and culture equal? Should such differences be weighted differently and thus hierarchically? On what basis are those differences to be weighted and ranked to ensure equality? Justice Through Diversity brings together a Who’s Who of contemporary scholars to explore these questions and others in an attempt to understand one of the central commitments in the modern world.

Debating Religious Liberty and Discrimination

Author: John Corvino
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190603070
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Virtually everyone supports religious liberty, and virtually everyone opposes discrimination. But how do we handle the hard questions that arise when exercises of religious liberty seem to discriminate unjustly? How do we promote the common good while respecting conscience in a diverse society? This point-counterpoint book brings together leading voices in the culture wars to debate such questions: John Corvino, a longtime LGBT-rights advocate, opposite Ryan T. Anderson and Sherif Girgis, prominent young defenders of the traditional view of marriage. Many such questions have arisen in response to same-sex marriage: How should we treat county clerks who do not wish to authorize such marriages, for example; or bakers, florists, and photographers who do not wish to provide services for same-sex weddings? But the conflicts are not limited to the LGBT-rights arena. And they implicate age-old questions about the role of government, the value of religion, and the challenges of living in a diverse and free society. The differences between Corvino and Anderson-Girgis, though nuanced, run deep. The debate between them is an important contribution to discussions about why religious liberty matters and what respecting it requires.

International Society

Author: David R. Mapel
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691049724
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Drawing on diverse philosophical and theological perspectives, the contributors to this collection debate the character of international society, the authority of international law and institutions, and the demands of international justice.

God Loves Diversity and Justice

Author: Susanne Scholz
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739173197
Format: PDF
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This book interrogates the theological statement of God loving diversity and justice from the multi-religious, multi-ethnic, multi-disciplinary, and multi-gendered identities of the contributors. They engage selectively the various sources of their diverse traditions, including the Sikh scriptures, the Bible, the Qur’an, the movies, the Declaration of Human Rights, and the transgender movement. The result is a serious historical, literary, cultural, and religious discourse that fends against intellectually rigid thought and simplistic belief systems.

Philosophical Perspectives on Religious Diversity

Author: Dirk-Martin Grube
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781138104624
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Addressing the question of what kind of theoretical foundations are required if we wish to have a constructive attitude towards different religions, this book scrutinizes aspects of the human condition, personhood and notions of (exclusive) truth and tolerance. In the book, Wolterstorff suggests that persons have hermeneutic and related competences that account for their special dignity, and that this dignity implies the right to practice religion freely. Margolis emphasizes the contingent character of all religious pursuits � being products of a unique form of evolution, humans need to create convincing purposes in an otherwise purposeless world. Respondents criticize both views with an eye on the question of whether those views promote religious tolerance. Grube criticizes the tendency for interreligious dialogue to be pursued under the parameters of an exclusive, bivalent notion of truth according to which something is necessarily false if it is not true. Under those parameters, religions that differ from the (one) true religion must be false. This explains why religious pluralists attempt to minimize the differences between religions at all costs and why others suggest implausibly strong concepts of tolerance. As an alternative, Grube proposes to drop exclusive concepts of truth and to conduct interreligious dialogue under the parameters of the concept of justification which allows for pluralisation. The following discussion takes up this criticism of bivalence and its consequences for dealing with religious otherness. This book was originally published as a special issue of the International Journal of Philosophy and Theology.

The Liberalism communitarianism Debate

Author: Cornelius F. Delaney
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780847678648
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In the tradition of John Rawls's A Theory of Justice, Delaney brings to the forefront one of the latest challenges to liberalism: communitarianism. Distinguished political scientists and philosophers provide a dialogue that enriches the arguments of both schools.

Money and Justice

Author: Leszek Niewdana
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317595742
Format: PDF
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Money has always represented power. For Aristotle, this power was inseparable from the exercise of justice within a community. This is why issuance of money was the prerogative of the lawful authority (government). Such a view of monetary power was widespread, and includes societies as distant as China. Over the past several centuries, however, private interests increasingly tapped into the exercise of the money power. Through gradual shifts, commercial banks have gained a legally protected right to create money through issuance of debts. The aim of this book is to unravel various layers hiding the real workings of modern money and banking systems and injustices ingrained in them. By asking what money really is, who controls it and for what purpose (why), the book provides insight into understanding of modern money and banking systems, as well as the causes of growing financialization of economies throughout the world, money manias and economic instability. The book also increases the awareness of injustices hidden in the workings of modern money and banking systems and the need for moral underpinnings of such systems. Finally, it suggests a money system which could immensely improve human, economic, and ecological conditions.

The Biology of Moral Systems

Author: Richard D. Alexander
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9780202369488
Format: PDF, ePub
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Despite wide acceptance that the attributes of living creatures have appeared through a cumulative evolutionary process guided chiefly by natural selection, many human activities have seemed analytically inaccessible through such an approach. Prominent evolutionary biologists, for example, have described morality as contrary to the direction of biological evolution, and moral philosophers rarely regard evolution as relevant to their discussions. The Biology of Moral Systems adopts the position that moral questions arise out of conflicts of interest, and that moral systems are ways of using confluences of interest at lower levels of social organization to deal with conflicts of interest at higher levels. Moral systems are described as systems of indirect reciprocity: humans gain and lose socially and reproductively not only by direct transactions, but also by the reputations they gain from the everyday flow of social interactions. The author develops a general theory of human interests, using senescence and effort theory from biology, to help analyze the patterning of human lifetimes. He argues that the ultimate interests of humans are reproductive, and that the concept of morality has arisen within groups because of its contribution to unity in the context, ultimately, of success in intergroup competition. He contends that morality is not easily relatable to universals, and he carries this argument into a discussion of what he calls the greatest of all moral problems, the nuclear arms race. "Crammed with sage observations on moral dilemmas and many reasons why an understanding of evolution based on natural selection will advance thinking in finding practical solutions to our most difficult social problems." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social SciencesRichard D. Alexander is Donald Ward Tinkle Professor of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biology, and Curator of Insects, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. A recipient of numerous awards, Dr. Alexander is the author of Darwinism and Human Affairs.

Justice for Hedgehogs

Author: Ronald Dworkin
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674071964
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In Dworkin’s master work, the central thesis is that all areas of value depend on one another. This is one, big thing that the hedgehog knows, in contrast to the fox, who knows many little things. Dworkin’s understanding of the relationship—between ethics, morality, and political morality—is significantly revised and also greatly elaborated. He argues that “dignity” is the essential core of living well and that a satisfactory account of dignity would, in turn, point to two principles. The first states that it is objectively important that each person’s life go well; and the second that each person has a special responsibility for identifying what counts as success in his or her own life. Dworkin believes that values cohere and that in order to defend that coherence he has to take up a broad variety of philosophical issues that are not normally treated in one book. He discusses the metaphysics of value, the character of truth, the nature of interpretation, the conditions of agreement and disagreement, the phenomenon of moral responsibility and the problem of free will as well as more substantive issues of ethical, moral and legal theory.

More than a Monologue Sexual Diversity and the Catholic Church

Author: Christine Firer Hinze
Publisher: Fordham University Press
ISBN: 082325660X
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This powerful new collection gives voice to the lived experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer persons with and within the Catholic Church, and promotes much-needed dialogue about faith and sexuality. The Second Vatican Council's landmark document Gaudium et spes called Catholics to cultivate robust, mutually enriching dialogue with the modern world by attentively and discerningly listening to the "voices of our times." This distinctive new publication, the first of two volumes that explore sexual diversity and the Catholic Church, gathers an important set of these voices: the testimonies and reflections of Catholic and former Catholic LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) persons, their friends, family members, and those who teach and accompany them. Drawn from a series of conferences held in autumn 2011 and offering a spectrum of professional, generational, and personal perspectives, the essays in Voices of Our Times suggest the breadth and complexity of Catholic experiences of and engagements with sexual diversity. Each writer locates her or his reflections in careful attention to how ways of experiencing sexuality and speaking about sexual diversity are embodied in and shaped by particular practices--familial, interpersonal, professional, ecclesial, cultural, and political. Part I, "Practicing Love," introduces the voices of singles, families, couples, parents, and children who reflect on their experiences of sexual diversity in light of their experiences of Catholicism and of Catholics. Part II, "Practicing Church," offers the perspectives of clergy and lay ministers, casting light on what pastoral workers, Catholic and otherwise, encounter as they walk with people who are grappling with issues of faith and sexuality. In Part III, "Practicing Education," writers discuss their experiences with sexual diversity in Catholic educational settings as teachers, as students, and as witnesses to the lives, loves, and struggles of LGBTQ young adults. Finally, Part IV, "Practicing Belonging," spotlights contributions by authors who have struggled with their identities and place within and around the Catholic community. Striving to acknowledge, honor, and respect the truth and value embodied in both LGBTQ persons' lives and in the Catholic tradition, this book provides a close-to-the-ground look at the state of the conversation about sexual diversity among contemporary Roman Catholics in the United States. Along with its companion volume, Inquiry, Thought, and Expression, Voices of Our Times represents a unique opportunity for readers inside and outside the Catholic community to engage in a conversation that is at once vibrant and complex, difficult and needed.