Kinetic and Thermodynamic Lumping of Multicomponent Mixtures

Author: G. Astarita
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444600248
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Information necessary to solve scientific or engineering problems is often so vast, that the need arises to lump information together into a more manageable subset in order to proceed. The idea of lumping is one which is used, more or less consciously, in a large variety of fields. The thermodynamics and kinetic behavior of multicomponent mixtures is an area where the requirements of lumping have been clearly identified and the techniques and results of lumping have been analyzed in considerable detail. This book comprises the proceedings of a Symposium on Kinetic and Thermodynamic Lumping of Multicomponent Mixtures which was held at the American Chemical Society Meeting in Atlanta, GA, in April 1991. Papers presented at the symposium consisted of both invited and contributed papers. Each invited paper was a review of a subfield within the landscape of the symposium while the contributed papers contain detailed analyses of specific problems. The symposium brought together active researchers in this field to report on and discuss the progress which has been made in the lumping of mixtures of very many components for a number of different applications, and to identify the important problem areas which still remain. This volume will serve both as an introduction to anyone entering the field, and as a reference work for more experienced researchers.

Advances in Chemical Engineering

Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080565712
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume is comprised of reviews to inform the chemical engineering community about important developments in science and technology, and to serve as starting points for further advances. Included are chapters on chemical reactions of all sorts, combustion synthesis, fluid dynamics and the analysis and design of chemical reactors, and industrial cases in environmental engineering.

Petroleum Refining Vol 3 Conversion Processes

Author: Pierre Leprince
Publisher: Editions TECHNIP
ISBN: 2710807793
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume describes the characteristics of processes used in petroleum refining: upgrading light fractions (reforming and isomerization), converting distillates (catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, and associated equipment), converting residues (visbreaking, coking hydroconversion), and reducing air and water pollution (white product sweetening, acid gas, stack gas, and waste water treatment). This book is available in French Under the title "le raffinage du pétrole. Tome 3. Procédés de transformation". Contents : 1. Introduction. 2. Basic principles governing chemical changes. 3. Industrial catalysts. 4. Catalytic reforming. 5. Catalytic cracking. 6. Isomerization of light paraffins. 7. Aliphatic alkylation. 8. Olefin etherification. 9. Oligomerization. 10. Hydrocracking. 11. Visbreaking of residues. 12. Coking. 13. Residue hydroconversion. 14. Hydrogen production. 15. White products refining by sweetening. 16. Hydrotreating. 17. Acid gas treatment. 18. Desulfurization of stack gases. 19. Water treatment. References. Index.

Modeling of Processes and Reactors for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum

Author: Jorge Ancheyta
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439880468
Format: PDF, ePub
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The worldwide petroleum industry is facing a dilemma: the production level of heavy petroleum is higher than that of light petroleum. Heavy crude oils possess high amounts of impurities (sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltenes), as well as a high yield of residue with consequent low production of valuable distillates (gasoline and diesel). These characteristics, in turn, are responsible for the low price of heavy petroleum. Additionally, existing refineries are designed to process light crude oil, and heavy oil cannot be refined to 100 percent. One solution to this problem is the installation of plants for heavy oil upgrading before sending this raw material to a refinery. Modeling of Processes and Reactors for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum gives an up-to-date treatment of modeling of reactors employed in the main processes for heavy petroleum upgrading. The book includes fundamental aspects such as thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, chemistry, and process variables. Process schemes for each process are discussed in detail. The author thoroughly describes the development of correlations, reactor models, and kinetic models with the aid of experimental data collected from different reaction scales. The validation of modeling results is performed by comparison with experimental and commercial data taken from the literature or generated in various laboratory scale reactors. Organized into three sections, this book deals with general aspects of properties and upgrading of heavy oils, describes the modeling of non-catalytic processes, as well as the modeling of catalytic processes. Each chapter provides detailed experimental data, explanations of how to determine model parameters, and comparisons with reactor model predictions for different situations, so that readers can adapt their own computer programs. The book includes rigorous treatment of the different topics as well as the step-by-step description of model formulation and application. It is not only an indispensable reference for professionals working in the development of reactor models for the petroleum industry, but also a textbook for full courses in chemical reaction engineering. The author would like to express his sincere appreciation to the Marcos Moshinsky Foundation for the financial support provided by means of a Cátedra de Investigación.

Analysis of Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms

Author: Tamas Turanyi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 366244562X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Chemical processes in many fields of science and technology, including combustion, atmospheric chemistry, environmental modelling, process engineering, and systems biology, can be described by detailed reaction mechanisms consisting of numerous reaction steps. This book describes methods for the analysis of reaction mechanisms that are applicable in all these fields. Topics addressed include: how sensitivity and uncertainty analyses allow the calculation of the overall uncertainty of simulation results and the identification of the most important input parameters, the ways in which mechanisms can be reduced without losing important kinetic and dynamic detail, and the application of reduced models for more accurate engineering optimizations. This monograph is invaluable for researchers and engineers dealing with detailed reaction mechanisms, but is also useful for graduate students of related courses in chemistry, mechanical engineering, energy and environmental science and biology.

Process Engineering and Industrial Management

Author: Jean-Pierre Dal Pont
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118565983
Format: PDF
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Process Engineering, the science and art of transforming raw materials and energy into a vast array of commercial materials, was conceived at the end of the 19th Century. Its history in the role of the Process Industries has been quite honorable, and techniques and products have contributed to improve health, welfare and quality of life. Today, industrial enterprises, which are still a major source of wealth, have to deal with new challenges in a global world. They need to reconsider their strategy taking into account environmental constraints, social requirements, profit, competition, and resource depletion. “Systems thinking” is a prerequisite from process development at the lab level to good project management. New manufacturing concepts have to be considered, taking into account LCA, supply chain management, recycling, plant flexibility, continuous development, process intensification and innovation. This book combines experience from academia and industry in the field of industrialization, i.e. in all processes involved in the conversion of research into successful operations. Enterprises are facing major challenges in a world of fierce competition and globalization. Process engineering techniques provide Process Industries with the necessary tools to cope with these issues. The chapters of this book give a new approach to the management of technology, projects and manufacturing. Contents Part 1: The Company as of Today 1. The Industrial Company: its Purpose, History, Context, and its Tomorrow?, Jean-Pierre Dal Pont. 2. The Two Modes of Operation of the Company – Operational and Entrepreneurial, Jean-Pierre Dal Pont. 3. The Strategic Management of the Company: Industrial Aspects, Jean-Pierre Dal Pont. Part 2: Process Development and Industrialization 4. Chemical Engineering and Process Engineering, Jean-Pierre Dal Pont. 5. Foundations of Process Industrialization, Jean-François Joly. 6. The Industrialization Process: Preliminary Projects, Jean-Pierre Dal Pont and Michel Royer. 7. Lifecycle Analysis and Eco-Design: Innovation Tools for Sustainable Industrial Chemistry, Sylvain Caillol. 8. Methods for Design and Evaluation of Sustainable Processes and Industrial Systems, Catherine Azzaro-Pantel. 9. Project Management Techniques: Engineering, Jean-Pierre Dal Pont. Part 3: The Necessary Adaptation of the Company for the Future 10. Japanese Methods, Jean-Pierre Dal Pont. 11. Innovation in Chemical Engineering Industries, Oliver Potier and Mauricio Camargo. 12. The Place of Intensified Processes in the Plant of the Future, Laurent Falk. 13. Change Management, Jean-Pierre Dal Pont. 14. The Plant of the Future, Jean-Pierre Dal Pont.

Geochemical Kinetics

Author: Youxue Zhang
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691124322
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book offers a comprehensive exploration of geochemical kinetics--the application of chemical kinetics to geological problems, both theoretical and practical. Geochemical Kinetics balances the basic theories of chemical kinetics with a thorough examination of advanced theories developed by geochemists, such as nonisothermal kinetics and inverse theories, including geochronology (isotopic dating), thermochronology (temperature-time history), and geospeedometry (cooling rates). The first chapter provides an introduction and overview of the whole field at an elementary level, and the subsequent chapters develop theories and applications for homogeneous reactions, mass and heat transfer, heterogeneous reactions, and inverse problems. Most of the book's examples are from high-temperature geochemistry, with a few from astronomy and environmental sciences. Appendixes, homework problems for each major section, and a lengthy reference list are also provided. Readers should have knowledge of basic differential equations, some linear algebra, and thermodynamics at the level of an undergraduate physical chemistry course. Geochemical Kinetics is a valuable resource for anyone interested in the mathematical treatment of geochemical questions.

An Introduction to Applied Statistical Thermodynamics

Author: Stanley I. Sandler
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470913479
Format: PDF
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!--[if gte mso 9] Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 ![endif]--!--[if gte mso 9] ![endif]-- !-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:"Cambria Math"; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:roman; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-1610611985 1107304683 0 0 159 0;} @font-face {font-family:Calibri; panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-1610611985 1073750139 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} .MsoChpDefault {mso-style-type:export-only; mso-default-props:yes; font-size:10.0pt; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;} @page WordSection1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} -- !--[if gte mso 10] ![endif]--One of the goals of An Introduction to Applied Statistical Thermodynamics is to introduce readers to the fundamental ideas and engineering uses of statistical thermodynamics, and the equilibrium part of the statistical mechanics. This text emphasizes on nano and bio technologies, molecular level descriptions and understandings offered by statistical mechanics. This book provides an introduction to the simplest forms of Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation (albeit only for simple spherical molecules) and user-friendly MATLAB programs for doing such simulations, and also some other calculations. The purpose of this book is to provide a readable introduction to statistical thermodynamics, show its utility and the way the results obtained lead to useful generalizations for practical application. The book also illustrates the difficulties that arise in the statistical thermodynamics of dense fluids as seen in the discussion of liquids.

Kinetics of Chemical Processes

Author: Michel Boudart
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483183971
Format: PDF, Docs
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Kinetics of Chemical Processes details the concepts associated with the kinetic study of the chemical processes. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that present information relevant to applied research. The text first covers the elementary chemical kinetics of elementary steps, and then proceeds to discussing catalysis. The next chapter tackles simplified kinetics of sequences at the steady state. Chapter 5 deals with coupled sequences in reaction networks, while Chapter 6 talks about autocatalysis and inhibition. The seventh chapter describes the irreducible transport phenomena in chemical kinetics. The next two chapters discuss the correlations in homogenous kinetics and heterogeneous catalysis, respectively. The last chapter covers the analysis of reaction networks. The book will be of great use to students, researchers, and practitioners of scientific disciplines that deal with chemical reaction, particularly chemistry and chemical engineering.

Computational Techniques for Chemical Engineers

Author: C. Storey
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 148315713X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Computational Techniques for Chemical Engineers offers a practical guide to the chemical engineer faced with a problem of computing. The computer is a servant not a master, its value depends on the instructions it is given. This book aims to help the chemical engineer in the right choice of these instructions. The text begins by outlining the principles of operation of digital and analogue computers and then discussing the difficulties which arise in formulating a problem for solution on such a machine. This is followed by separate chapters on digital computers and their programming; the use of digital computers in chemical engineering design work; optimization techniques and their application in the selection of optimum designs; the solution of sets of non-linear algebraic equations via hill-climbing; and determination of equilibrium compositions by minimization of Gibbs free energy. Subsequent chapters discuss the solution of partial or simultaneous differential equations; parameter estimation in differential equations; continuous systems; and analogue computers.