Languages and Communities in Early Modern Europe

Author: Peter Burke
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521535861
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In this magisterial study, Peter Burke explores major themes in the social and cultural history of the languages spoken or written in Europe between the invention of printing and the French Revolution. One major theme is the relation between languages and communities and the place of language as a way of identifying others, as well as a symbol of one's own identity. A second, linked theme is that of competition: between Latin and the vernaculars, between different vernaculars, dominant and subordinate, and finally between different varieties of the same vernacular.

The Last Byzantine Renaissance

Author: Steven Runciman
Publisher: CUP Archive
ISBN:
Format: PDF
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During the last two centuries of its existence the Byzantine Empire was politically in a state of utter decadence, but, in contrast, its intellectual life has never before shone so brilliantly. In these four lectures the author discusses the leading scholars of the period, their erudition, their intense individualism, their controversies and their achievements.

The Construction of Nationhood

Author: Adrian Hastings
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521625449
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This interdisciplinary book straddles the fields of history, politics, religion and sociology, and medieval and modern history. Its importance lies in its contribution to arguments about the meaning and origin of nationalism, ethnicity and nationhood, and in challenging the widely-accepted "modernist" theories of Eric Hobsbawm, Benedict Anderson and others. Its argument incorporates careful analysis of English, Irish, South Slav and African examples, and suggests finally an important contract between Christianity and Islam.

Philosophers of Peace and War

Author: W. B. Gallie
Publisher: CUP Archive
ISBN: 9780521296519
Format: PDF, ePub
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Examines the contributions of Kant, Clausewitz, Marx and Engels, and Tolstoy to the understanding of the character and causes of war and of the possibility of peace between nations.

Revolution in Science

Author: I. Bernard Cohen
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674767782
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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An exploration of the nature of scientific revolutions examines the stages by which they occur, their time scale, specific criteria for determining whether or not there has been a revolution, and the creative factors in producing a revolutionary idea

Authoring the Past

Author: Alun Munslow
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 041552038X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Please explain why you think about and write history as you do? Collecting together the responses to this question from 15 of the world's foremost historians and theorists, Authoring the Past represents a powerful reflection on and intervention in the historiographical field. Edited by Alun Munslow and presented in concise digestible essays, the collection covers a broad range of contemporary interests and ideas and offers a rich set of reasoned alternative thoughts on our cultural engagement with times gone by. Emerging from an intensely fertile period of historical thought and practice, Authoring the Past examines the variety of approaches to the discipline that have taken shape during this time and suggests possible future ways of thinking about and interacting with the past. It provides a unique insight into recent debates on the nature and purpose of history and demonstrates that when diverse metaphysical and aesthetic choices are made, the nature of the representation of the past becomes a matter of legitimate dispute. Students, scholars and practitioners of history will find it a stimulating and invaluable resource.

On Language Diversity and Relationship from Bibliander to Adelung

Author: George J. Metcalf
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027271496
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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From the Renaissance onwards, European scholars began to collect and study the various languages of the Old and the New Worlds. The recognition of language diversity encouraged them to explain how differences between languages emerged, why languages kept changing, and in what language families they could be classified. The present volume brings together the papers of the late George J. Metcalf (1908–1994) that discuss the search for possible genetic language relationships, and the study of language developments and origins, in Early Modern Europe. Two general chapters, surveying the period between the 16th and 18th century, are followed by detailed case studies of the contributions of Swiss, Dutch, and German scholars such as Theodor Bibliander (1504–1564), Konrad Gesner (1516–1565), Philippus Cluverius (1580–1623), Hugo Grotius (1583–1645), and Justus Georg Schottelius (1612–1676). This collection of important studies, a number of which have become very hard to find, has been framed by a detailed Editors’ Introduction, a biographical sketch of the author, a master list of references, and indexes of biographical names and of subjects, terms, and languages.

The Voice of the Church at Prayer

Author: Fr. Michael Lang
Publisher: Ignatius Press
ISBN: 168149566X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Pope Benedict XVI has made the liturgy a central theme of his pontificate, and he has paid special attention to the vitally important role of language in prayer. This historical and theological study of the changing role of Latin in the Roman Catholic Church sheds light on some of the Holy Father's concerns and some of his recent decisions about the liturgy. The Fathers of the Second Vatican Council allowed for extended use of the vernacular at Mass, but they maintained that Latin deserved pride of place in the Roman Rite. The outcome, however, was that modern translations of the prayers of the Mass replaced the Latin prayers. What was the reason for the Council's decision and why is there now a desire for greater use of Latin in Catholic worship? Why have some post-conciliar English translations of the prayers of the Mass been replaced? Fr. Lang answers these questions by first analyzing the nature of sacred language. He then traces the beginnings of Christian prayer to the Scriptures and the Greek spoken at the time of the apostles. Next he recounts the slow and gradual development of Latin into the sacred language of the Western Church and its continuing use throughout the Middle Ages. Finally, he addresses the rise of modern languages and the ongoing question of whether the participation of the laity at Mass is either helped or hindered by the use of Latin.

The Ideology of Classicism

Author: Nicolas Wiater
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110256584
Format: PDF, Docs
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"So far, the critical writings of Dionysius of Halicarnassus have mainly attracted interest from historians of ancient linguistics. The Ideology of Classicism proposes a novel approach to Dionysius' œuvre as a whole by providing the first systematic study of Greek classicism from the perspective of cultural identity. Drawing on cultural anthropology and Social Identity Theory, Wiater explores the world-view bound up with classicist criticism. Only from within this ideological framework can we understand why Greek and Roman intellectuals in Augustan Rome strove to speak and write like Demosthenes, Lysias, and Isocrates. Topics addressed by this study include Dionysius' view of the classical past; mimesis and the aesthetics of reading; language and identity; Dionysius' view of the Romans, their power and the role of Greek culture within it; Greek classicism and the contemporary controversy about Roman identity among Roman intellectuals; the self-image as Greek intellectuals in the Roman empire of Dionysius and his addressees; the dialogic design of Dionysius' essays and how it implements a sense of elitism and distinction; Dionysius' attitudes towards communities competing with him for leadership in rhetorical education and criticism, such as the Peripatetics and Stoics."--Publisher's website.

Recovering Liberties

Author: C. A. Bayly
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139505181
Format: PDF, Mobi
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One of the world's leading historians examines the great Indian liberal tradition, stretching from Rammohan Roy in the 1820s, through Dadabhai Naoroji in the 1880s to G. K. Gokhale in the 1900s. This powerful new study shows how the ideas of constitutional, and later 'communitarian' liberals influenced, but were also rejected by their opponents and successors, including Nehru, Gandhi, Indian socialists, radical democrats and proponents of Hindu nationalism. Equally, Recovering Liberties contributes to the rapidly developing field of global intellectual history, demonstrating that the ideas we associate with major Western thinkers – Mills, Comte, Spencer and Marx – were received and transformed by Indian intellectuals in the light of their own traditions to demand justice, racial equality and political representation. In doing so, Christopher Bayly throws fresh light on the nature and limitations of European political thought and re-examines the origins of Indian democracy.