Law and Justice from Antiquity to Enlightenment

Author: Robert W. Shaffern
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
ISBN: 1461638712
Format: PDF, ePub
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This concise intellectual history of the law offers an accessible introduction to the ideas and contexts of law from ancient Babylon to eighteenth-century Europe. Robert W. Shaffern examines a rich array of sources to illuminate ideas about law and justice in Western civilization. He identifies four main sources for traditional jurisprudence—the civilizations of the Fertile Crescent and classical Athens, the legal legacy of ancient Rome, the legal traditions of the Middle Ages, and developments in early modern Europe. By focusing on the recurring issues and historical contexts of the law, the author shows the extensive influence earlier sources had on the later development of Western law. For instance, the ancient code of Hammurabi pledged to obtain justice for the "widow and the orphan," a phrase that appeared again in later laws. Also, the tragedies of Aeschylus insisted that private individuals pursue vengeance, but government judiciaries upheld justice, an idea that the early modern European monarchies advanced when they promulgated new codes of criminal law. Additionally, Roman, medieval, and modern jurists all believed that natural law theory served as a rational criterion for legislators and judges. Throughout the span of centuries covered in the text, governments used law to regulate or monopolize the employment of violence. Designed to introduce undergraduates to the significant developments and ideas about the law and justice, this book will be invaluable for courses on the history of law and jurisprudence.

Understanding Western Society Volume 1 From Antiquity to the Enlightenment

Author: John P. McKay
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 0312668880
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Based on the highly successful A History of Western Society, Understanding Western Society: A Brief History captures students’ interest in the everyday life of the past and ties social history to the broad sweep of politics and culture. Abridged by 30%, the narrative is paired with innovative pedagogy, designed to help students focus on significant developments as they read and review. An innovative, three-step end-of-Chapter study guide helps students master key facts and move toward synthesis.

Christianity Antiquity and Enlightenment

Author: Victor Nuovo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400702745
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The volume will consist of a series of interpretative studies of Locke’s philosophical and religious thought in historical context and consider his contributions to the Enlightenment and modern liberal thought.

Socrates from Antiquity to the Enlightenment

Author: Michael Trapp
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351899112
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Socrates, son of Sophroniscus, of Alopece is arguably the most richly and diversely commemorated - and appropriated - of all ancient thinkers. Already in Antiquity, vigorous controversy over his significance and value ensured a wide range of conflicting representations. He then became available to the medieval, renaissance and modern worlds in a provocative variety of roles: as paradigmatic philosopher and representative (for good or ill) of ancient philosophical culture in general; as practitioner of a distinctive philosophical method, and a distinctive philosophical lifestyle; as the ostensible originator of startling doctrines about politics and sex; as martyr (the victim of the most extreme of all miscarriages of justice); as possessor of an extraordinary, and extraordinarily significant physical appearance; and as the archetype of the hen-pecked intellectual. To this day, he continues to be the most readily recognized of ancient philosophers, as much in popular as in academic culture. This volume, along with its companion, Socrates in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, aims to do full justice to the source material (philosophical, literary, artistic, political), and to the range of interpretative issues it raises. It opens with an Introduction surveying ancient accounts of Socrates, and discussing the origins and current state of the 'Socratic question'. This is followed by three sections, covering the Socrates of Antiquity, with perspectives forward to later developments (especially in drama and the visual arts); Socrates from Late Antiquity to medieval times; and Socrates in the Renaissance and Enlightenment. Among topics singled out for special attention are medieval Arabic and Jewish interest in Socrates, and his role in the European Enlightenment as an emblem of moral courage and as the clinching proof of the follies of democracy.

A History of Western Society Volume I From Antiquity to the Enlightenment

Author: John P. McKay
Publisher: Macmillan Higher Education
ISBN: 1457602520
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Now from Bedford/St. Martin's, A History of Western Society is one of the most successful textbooks available because it captures students' interest in the everyday life of the past and ties social history to the broad sweep of politics and culture. The tenth edition has been thoroughly revised to strengthen the text's readability, heighten its attention to daily life, and incorporate the insights of new scholarship, including an enhanced treatment of European exploration and a thoroughly revised post-1945 section. With a dynamic new design, new special features, and a completely revised and robust companion reader, this major revision makes the past memorable and accessible for a new generation of students and instructors.

A Symphony of Silence An Enlightened Vision 2nd Edition

Author: George A. Ellis
Publisher: George A. Ellis
ISBN: 1508944253
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The first edition of A Symphony of Silence: An Enlightened Vision was inspired by the desire to share with humanity, through multiple voices, the ineffable beauty we experience in our lives when the veil of ignorance is pulled back and the wonder of our essential nature is revealed.. The voices emerging from these pages add vitality and validity to our shared experience of the silence of the transcendent. It is not something beyond our reach, but a reality that has always been with us, quietly awaiting an opportunity to unfold. In this second edition of A Symphony of Silence, several new voices are added to the chorus of the first edition. A Catholic priest tells us of using TM as part of his inspired vision of the power of love to transform the lives of abused and destitute children from the streets of South America. The founding director of an orphanage and school in Uganda, who likewise brings TM to children in need, describes to us his compassionate resolve to eradicate suffering within his community. A poet expresses for us in verse the joy of a seeker reaching for the light. A scientist and his colleagues show us the power of TM to reduce stress and alleviate PTSD in the field of law enforcement. An actor, director, producer, and entrepreneur, explores with us his innovative projects for inner city students through “Edutainment.” Women, who for decades dedicated themselves to introducing the TM program to their multicultural community, share with us delightful and very personal stories. A pioneering social activist brings us into the conversation he had with Maharishi in 1968 at a conference in Squaw Valley, California. He talked candidly with Maharishi about the need to introduce TM as a tool to bring inner freedom to the inner cities, helping to fulfill the quest for true civil rights. The voices in A Symphony of Silence create a glimpse into the vast impact that Maharishi has on many lives throughout the world.

Sex and the Constitution Sex Religion and Law from America s Origins to the Twenty First Century

Author: Geoffrey R. Stone
Publisher: Liveright Publishing
ISBN: 1631493655
Format: PDF, ePub
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There has never been a book like Sex and the Constitution, a one-volume history that chapter after chapter overturns popular shibboleths, while dramatically narrating the epic story of how sex came to be legislated in America. Beginning his volume in the ancient and medieval worlds, Geoffrey R. Stone demonstrates how the Founding Fathers, deeply influenced by their philosophical forebears, saw traditional Christianity as an impediment to the pursuit of happiness and to the quest for human progress. Acutely aware of the need to separate politics from the divisive forces of religion, the Founding Fathers crafted a constitution that expressed the fundamental values of the Enlightenment. Although the Second Great Awakening later came to define America through the lens of evangelical Christianity, nineteenth-century Americans continued to view sex as a matter of private concern, so much so that sexual expression and information about contraception circulated freely, abortions before “quickening” remained legal, and prosecutions for sodomy were almost nonexistent. The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries reversed such tolerance, however, as charismatic spiritual leaders and barnstorming politicians rejected the values of our nation’s founders. Spurred on by Anthony Comstock, America’s most feared enforcer of morality, new laws were enacted banning pornography, contraception, and abortion, with Comstock proposing that the word “unclean” be branded on the foreheads of homosexuals. Women increasingly lost control of their bodies, and birth control advocates, like Margaret Sanger, were imprisoned for advocating their beliefs. In this new world, abortions were for the first time relegated to dank and dangerous back rooms. The twentieth century gradually saw the emergence of bitter divisions over issues of sexual “morality” and sexual freedom. Fiercely determined organizations and individuals on both the right and the left wrestled in the domains of politics, religion, public opinion, and the courts to win over the soul of the nation. With its stirring portrayals of Supreme Court justices, Sex and the Constitution reads like a dramatic gazette of the critical cases they decided, ranging from Griswold v. Connecticut (contraception), to Roe v. Wade (abortion), to Obergefell v. Hodges (gay marriage), with Stone providing vivid historical context to the decisions that have come to define who we are as a nation. Now, though, after the 2016 presidential election, we seem to have taken a huge step backward, with the progress of the last half century suddenly imperiled. No one can predict the extent to which constitutional decisions safeguarding our personal freedoms might soon be eroded, but Sex and the Constitution is more vital now than ever before.

Philosophy of Justice

Author: Guttorm Fløistad
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401791759
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book presents surveys of significant trends in contemporary philosophy. Contributing authors explore themes relating to justice including natural rights, equality, freedom, democracy, morality and cultural traditions. Key movements and thinkers are considered, ranging from ancient Greek philosophy, Roman and Christian traditions to the development of Muslim law, Enlightenment perspectives and beyond. Authors discuss important works, including those of Aristotle, Ibn Khaldun, John Locke, Immanuel Kant and Mary Wollstonecraft. Readers are also invited to examine Hegel and the foundation of right, Karl Marx as a utopian socialist and the works of Paul Ricœur, amongst the wealth of perspectives presented in this book. Through these chapters, readers are able to explore the relationship of the state to justice and consider the rights of the individual and the role of law. Contributions presented here discuss concepts including Sharia law, freedom in the community and Libertarian Anarchism. Readers may follow accounts of justice in the Scottish Enlightenment and consider fairness, social justice and the concept of injustice. The surveys presented here show different approaches and a variety of interpretations. Each contribution has its own bibliography.