Law and Practice of Investment Treaties

Author: Andrew Paul Newcombe
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
ISBN: 9041123512
Format: PDF
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Foreign investors enjoy the protection of a vast network of international investment agreements (IIAs) supplemented by the general rules of international law. Under IIAs, states must accord foreign investors substantive standards of promotion and protection. In addition, IIAs provide an investor-state arbitration mechanism that allows foreign investors to enforce these standards against host states. In response to disputes arising under the IIA regime, since the early 1990s a significant body of arbitral jurisprudence has developed. This book provides a comprehensive and systematic explanation of these standards of treatment, taking into account developments in treaty practice and arbitral jurisprudence. Where possible, the authors critically examine the applicable principles emerging from treaty practice and jurisprudence. The book focuses on the substantive protections accorded to foreign investors and investments. Among the many specific issues and topics that arise in the course of the analysis are the following: the origins and evolution of the international investment treaty framework; the interaction between international and national law in the resolution of IIA disputes and the interpretation of IIAs; the role IIAs play in investment liberalization and their interaction with other areas of international economic law; the relationship between treaty and customary international law standards; the development of norms of non-discrimination and minimum standards of treatment, including fair and equitable treatment; the meaning of expropriation and conditions for lawful expropriations; the rules relating to transfer of funds, performance requirements and transparency; and exceptions and defences to investment treaty obligations. International business and other investors will greatly appreciate the in-depth information and insightful guidance in this solidly useful book. It will also be welcomed by jurists and students as a significant milestone in the articulation of principles in a quickly growing field of international law.

Sustainable Development in World Investment Law

Author: Marie-Claire Cordonier Segger
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
ISBN: 9041131663
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Sustainable development, as defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development, is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." More specifically, sustainable development is a process of change that seeks to improve the collective quality of life by focusing on economically, socially, and environmentally sound projects that are viable in the long-term. Sustainable development requires structural economic change and the foundation of that change is investment. In developing nations with low levels of domestic savings, investment predictably comes from abroad in the form of foreign direct investment. A large and ever expanding number of international investment agreements are in place to govern these transactions. While these accords seek to foster development while mitigating the risk involved in these types investments, many questions remain unresolved. This highly insightful book reflects the contributions of a variety of world renowned experts each of which is designed to provide the reader with valuable perspective on recent developments in investment law negotiations and jurisprudence from a sustainable development law perspective. It offers answers to pertinent questions concerning advancements in investment law, including the negotiation of numerous regional and bilateral agreements as well as the increasing number of disputes resolved in the World Bank's International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), from different developed and developing country perspectives. It lays out future directions for new treaty negotiations and dispute settlement proceedings, as well as ongoing investment promotion efforts, against a background of rapidly evolving international relationships between economic, environment and development law. It focuses on key issues in investment laws which have emerged as priorities in the negotiation of bilateral and regional investment agreements, and have been clarified through recent decisions of the ICSID and other arbitral panel awards.

The Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard

Author: Patrick Dumberry
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business
ISBN: 9789041132888
Format: PDF, ePub
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Since the entry into force of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994, several arbitral tribunals have rendered awards dealing with claims of breach of Article 1105. Some of these awards have been very controversial and have had a tremendous impact on the development of the concept of fair and equitable treatment (FET) and the evolution of international investment law. Yet, in spite of the fundamental importance of these awards, no comprehensive study had been undertaken to determine the meaning and the content of the FET standard under NAFTA Article 1105. This bookand’s systematic analysis of the provision and its case law fills this analytical gap. Because Article 1105 is in many ways different from typical FET clauses contained within most investment treaties, the author examines the particular parameters under which it must be interpreted. He also analyzes how these specific features have influenced NAFTA tribunalsand’ interpretation of the provision, and how their assessments differ from awards rendered by other tribunals outside NAFTA. Among the issues treated in the course of the analysis are the following: the origin, development, nature and content of the concept of the and‘minimum standard of treatmentand’ and its interaction with the FET standard; the specific parameters under which Article 1105 must be interpreted, including contextual elements such as subsequent agreement and practice between the NAFTA Parties on matters of interpretation; the context in which the Free Trade Commission issued its Note of Interpretation in 2001 and how NAFTA tribunals have applied it; whether or not the concepts of legitimate expectations, transparency, arbitrary conduct, discriminatory conduct, good faith, denial of justice, and due process have been considered by NAFTA tribunals as specific elements of protection to be accorded to investors under Article 1105; the many facets of these elements and the threshold of severity that NAFTA tribunals have required for finding a breach of Article 1105; the interaction between Article 1105 and other NAFTA provisions on national treatment, Most-Favored-Nation treatment, and expropriation; and how NAFTA tribunals have assessed damages for breach of Article 1105. This comprehensive guide to NAFTA case law on Article 1105 is an important contribution to the on-going controversial debate about the scope and content of the FET standard under international law. It will be of great interest to counsel for investors and States as well as to arbitrators, academics and anyone interested in investor-State arbitration.

Domestic Law in International Investment Arbitration

Author: Jarrod Hepburn
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198785739
Format: PDF, Docs
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Although domestic law plays an important role in investment treaty arbitration, this issue is little discussed or analysed. When should investment treaty tribunals engage with domestic law? How should investment treaty tribunals resolve matters of domestic law? These questions have significant ramifications for both the legitimacy of the investment treaty system and the arbitral mandate of the tribunal members. Drawing on case law, international law principles, and comparative analysis, this book addresses these important issues. Part I of the book examines three areas of investment law-the 'fair and equitable treatment' standard, expropriation, and remedies-in which the role of domestic law has so far been under-appreciated. It argues that tribunals are justified in drawing on domestic law as a relevant factor in their rulings on these three issues. Part II of the book examines how questions of domestic law should be resolved in investment arbitration. It proposes a normative framework for use by tribunals in ascertaining the contents of the domestic law to be applied. It then considers counter-arguments, exemptions, and exceptions to applying this framework, and it evaluates how tribunals have ruled on questions of domestic law to date. Investment treaty arbitration has endured much criticism in recent times, partly over fears of its encroachment on sovereignty. The book ultimately contends that closer attention by tribunals to one of the principal expressions of a state's sovereignty-the elaboration of its domestic law-will reduce criticism of the field.

Ownership Unbundling and Related Measures in the EU Energy Sector

Author: Tilman Michael Dralle
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319777971
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book provides the first comprehensive analysis of unbundling and, in particular, ownership unbundling policies from the perspective of international economic law. It does so by focusing on the prominent example of the EU’s energy sector and its Third Energy Package. Unbundling has become an increasingly crucial competition instrument in network-bound industries worldwide. It is designed to ensure access to bottleneck infrastructures on fair and non-discriminatory terms and thus to suppress the anti-competitive potential deriving from vertical integration in natural monopoly situations. While promoting important public policy objectives, unbundling policies have also raised a number of legal issues. This book analyzes how international economic law limits the adoption and maintenance of unbundling and related measures and also outlines how international trade law can play a ‘positive’ role in this field. As a result, it provides a valuable reference for academics, practitioners and policy-makers.

International Investment Arbitration

Author: Campbell McLachlan
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780199676804
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This is the long-awaited second edition of this widely-referenced work on the substantive law principles of investment treaty arbitration. It forms a detailed critical review of the substantive principles of international law applied by investment arbitration tribunals, and a clear and comprehensive description of the present state of the law. The first edition met with immediate success as a result of the authors' achievement in describing and analyzing the volume of law created, applied and analyzed by tribunals. The second edition is fully updated to take account of the arbitration awards rendered in the period since 2007. Written by an internationally recognized author team, it is now the most comprehensive and up to date work in its field and no practitioner or academic can afford to be without it. Key areas of coverage include: the instruments under which investment disputes arise; the legal basis of treaty arbitration; dispute resolution and parallel proceedings; who is a foreign investor, including nationality issues and foreign control; what is an investment; investors' substantive rights, including fair and equitable treatment; expropriation; compensation and remedies. Arbitration of overseas investment disputes is one of the fastest growing areas of international dispute resolution. The exponential growth of international investment in recent years has led to the signature of over two thousand Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) between foreign states, in addition to a wealth of multilateral treaties and other forms of concession agreements. The legal principles that have developed in this area are subject to intense debate, and are still in a state of flux. While tribunals routinely state that they are applying principles of public international law to determine disputes, many of the principles applied have only been developed recently in the context of investment treaty arbitrations, and tribunals are often guided more by the approaches taken by other tribunals, than by pre-existing doctrines of public international law. International Investment Arbitration: Substantive Principles is an important contribution to the collection and codification of the current state of practice in this field.

Denial of Justice in International Law

Author: Jan Paulsson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139448284
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Denial of justice is one of the oldest bases of liability in international law and the modern understanding of denial of justice is examined by Paulsson in this book, which was originally published in 2005. The possibilities for prosecuting the offence of denial of justice have evolved in fundamental ways and it is now settled law that States cannot disavow international responsibility by arguing that their courts are independent of the government. Even more importantly, the doors of international tribunals have swung wide open to admit claimants other than states: non-governmental organisations, corporations and individuals, and Paulsson examines several recent cases of great importance in his book.

Building International Investment Law

Author: Meg N. Kinnear
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789041161338
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume celebrates the first fifty years of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) by presenting the landmark cases that have been decided under its auspices. These cases have addressed every aspect of investment disputes: jurisdictional thresholds; the substantive obligations found in investment treaties, contracts, and legislation; questions of general international law; and a number of novel procedural issues. Each chapter, written by an expert on the chapter's particular focus, looks at an international investment law topic through the lens of one or more of these leading cases, analyzing what the case held, how it has been applied, and its overall significance to the development of international investment law. These topics include: - applicable law; - res judicata in investor-State arbitration; - notion of investment; - investor nationality; - consent to arbitration; - substantive standards of treatment; - consequences of corruption in investor-State arbitration; - State defenses - counter-claims; - assessment of damages and cost considerations; - ICSID Arbitration Rule 41(5) objections; - mass claims, consolidation and parallel proceedings; - provisional measures; - arbitrator challenges; - transparency and amicus curiae; and - annulment. Because the law of international investment continues to grow in importance in an ever globalizing world, this book is more than a fitting way to mark the past fifty years and to welcome the next fifty years of development. It will prove both educational for practitioners new to the field and informative for seasoned investment lawyers. Moreover, the book itself is a landmark that will be of great value to professionals, scholars and students interested in international investment law.

Fair and Equitable Treatment

Author: Patrick Dumberry
Publisher: Brill Research Perspectives
ISBN: 9789004366114
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book examines the interaction between the concept of the 'minimum standard of treatment' under custom and the fair and equitable treatment (FET) standard found in the vast majority of BITs. It also analyses whether the FET standard should be considered as a rule of customary international law.

International Arbitration

Author: Gary B. Born
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789041166371
Format: PDF, Kindle
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International Arbitration: Law and Practice (Second Edition) provides a comprehensive coverage of the basic principles and legal doctrines, and the practice, of international arbitration. It contains a systematic and concise treatment of all aspects of the arbitral process, including international arbitration agreements, international arbitral proceedings and international arbitral awards. The book addresses both international commercial arbitration and the related fields of investment and state-to-state arbitration, and is essential reading for any student of international arbitration and any practitioner seeking a complete introduction to the field. Accolades for Gary B. Bornand’s International Commercial Arbitration (2009 and& 2nd ed. 2014), recipient of the American Society of International Lawand’s 2010 Certificate of Merit: and“An unparalleled book on the law, practice and theory of international commercial arbitration and… indispensable for both practitioners and academics.and” Professor Jack L. Goldsmith III, Harvard Law School and“Stunningly comprehensive, accessible, and bristling with insights: the definitive text on international arbitration.and” Professor Harold Hongju Koh, Yale Law School and“A monumental work of legal scholarship.and” Professor Campbell McLachlan, Victoria University of Wellington and“An extraordinary combination of both practical experience and academic analysis.and” Professor Dr. Daniel Girsberger, University of Lucerne