Law and Practice of Investment Treaties

Author: Andrew Paul Newcombe
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
ISBN: 9041123512
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Foreign investors enjoy the protection of a vast network of international investment agreements (IIAs) supplemented by the general rules of international law. Under IIAs, states must accord foreign investors substantive standards of promotion and protection. In addition, IIAs provide an investor-state arbitration mechanism that allows foreign investors to enforce these standards against host states. In response to disputes arising under the IIA regime, since the early 1990s a significant body of arbitral jurisprudence has developed. This book provides a comprehensive and systematic explanation of these standards of treatment, taking into account developments in treaty practice and arbitral jurisprudence. Where possible, the authors critically examine the applicable principles emerging from treaty practice and jurisprudence. The book focuses on the substantive protections accorded to foreign investors and investments. Among the many specific issues and topics that arise in the course of the analysis are the following: the origins and evolution of the international investment treaty framework; the interaction between international and national law in the resolution of IIA disputes and the interpretation of IIAs; the role IIAs play in investment liberalization and their interaction with other areas of international economic law; the relationship between treaty and customary international law standards; the development of norms of non-discrimination and minimum standards of treatment, including fair and equitable treatment; the meaning of expropriation and conditions for lawful expropriations; the rules relating to transfer of funds, performance requirements and transparency; and exceptions and defences to investment treaty obligations. International business and other investors will greatly appreciate the in-depth information and insightful guidance in this solidly useful book. It will also be welcomed by jurists and students as a significant milestone in the articulation of principles in a quickly growing field of international law.

Sustainable Development in World Investment Law

Author: Marie-Claire Cordonier Segger
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
ISBN: 9041131663
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Sustainable development, as defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development, is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." More specifically, sustainable development is a process of change that seeks to improve the collective quality of life by focusing on economically, socially, and environmentally sound projects that are viable in the long-term. Sustainable development requires structural economic change and the foundation of that change is investment. In developing nations with low levels of domestic savings, investment predictably comes from abroad in the form of foreign direct investment. A large and ever expanding number of international investment agreements are in place to govern these transactions. While these accords seek to foster development while mitigating the risk involved in these types investments, many questions remain unresolved. This highly insightful book reflects the contributions of a variety of world renowned experts each of which is designed to provide the reader with valuable perspective on recent developments in investment law negotiations and jurisprudence from a sustainable development law perspective. It offers answers to pertinent questions concerning advancements in investment law, including the negotiation of numerous regional and bilateral agreements as well as the increasing number of disputes resolved in the World Bank's International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), from different developed and developing country perspectives. It lays out future directions for new treaty negotiations and dispute settlement proceedings, as well as ongoing investment promotion efforts, against a background of rapidly evolving international relationships between economic, environment and development law. It focuses on key issues in investment laws which have emerged as priorities in the negotiation of bilateral and regional investment agreements, and have been clarified through recent decisions of the ICSID and other arbitral panel awards.

The Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard

Author: Patrick Dumberry
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business
ISBN: 9789041132888
Format: PDF, Docs
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Since the entry into force of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994, several arbitral tribunals have rendered awards dealing with claims of breach of Article 1105. Some of these awards have been very controversial and have had a tremendous impact on the development of the concept of fair and equitable treatment (FET) and the evolution of international investment law. Yet, in spite of the fundamental importance of these awards, no comprehensive study had been undertaken to determine the meaning and the content of the FET standard under NAFTA Article 1105. This bookand’s systematic analysis of the provision and its case law fills this analytical gap. Because Article 1105 is in many ways different from typical FET clauses contained within most investment treaties, the author examines the particular parameters under which it must be interpreted. He also analyzes how these specific features have influenced NAFTA tribunalsand’ interpretation of the provision, and how their assessments differ from awards rendered by other tribunals outside NAFTA. Among the issues treated in the course of the analysis are the following: the origin, development, nature and content of the concept of the and‘minimum standard of treatmentand’ and its interaction with the FET standard; the specific parameters under which Article 1105 must be interpreted, including contextual elements such as subsequent agreement and practice between the NAFTA Parties on matters of interpretation; the context in which the Free Trade Commission issued its Note of Interpretation in 2001 and how NAFTA tribunals have applied it; whether or not the concepts of legitimate expectations, transparency, arbitrary conduct, discriminatory conduct, good faith, denial of justice, and due process have been considered by NAFTA tribunals as specific elements of protection to be accorded to investors under Article 1105; the many facets of these elements and the threshold of severity that NAFTA tribunals have required for finding a breach of Article 1105; the interaction between Article 1105 and other NAFTA provisions on national treatment, Most-Favored-Nation treatment, and expropriation; and how NAFTA tribunals have assessed damages for breach of Article 1105. This comprehensive guide to NAFTA case law on Article 1105 is an important contribution to the on-going controversial debate about the scope and content of the FET standard under international law. It will be of great interest to counsel for investors and States as well as to arbitrators, academics and anyone interested in investor-State arbitration.

International Arbitration

Author: Gary B. Born
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789041166371
Format: PDF, Kindle
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International Arbitration: Law and Practice (Second Edition) provides a comprehensive coverage of the basic principles and legal doctrines, and the practice, of international arbitration. It contains a systematic and concise treatment of all aspects of the arbitral process, including international arbitration agreements, international arbitral proceedings and international arbitral awards. The book addresses both international commercial arbitration and the related fields of investment and state-to-state arbitration, and is essential reading for any student of international arbitration and any practitioner seeking a complete introduction to the field. Accolades for Gary B. Bornand’s International Commercial Arbitration (2009 and& 2nd ed. 2014), recipient of the American Society of International Lawand’s 2010 Certificate of Merit: and“An unparalleled book on the law, practice and theory of international commercial arbitration and… indispensable for both practitioners and academics.and” Professor Jack L. Goldsmith III, Harvard Law School and“Stunningly comprehensive, accessible, and bristling with insights: the definitive text on international arbitration.and” Professor Harold Hongju Koh, Yale Law School and“A monumental work of legal scholarship.and” Professor Campbell McLachlan, Victoria University of Wellington and“An extraordinary combination of both practical experience and academic analysis.and” Professor Dr. Daniel Girsberger, University of Lucerne

The International Effectiveness of the Annulment of an Arbitral Award

Author: Hamid Gharavi
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
ISBN: 9041117172
Format: PDF, ePub
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In international arbitration as practiced today, few issues are as controversial and hotly debated as the foreign enforcement of an arbitral award that has been annulled in its originating jurisdiction. As more and more jurisdictions challenge such annulments, the issue has inevitably attracted the intense scrutiny of practitioners and scholars. Now, in the first book written on the subject--and a major work unlikely to be superseded for quite some time--the international practitioner and scholar Dr. Hamid G. Gharavi provides a keen, in-depth analysis of the sources, legal and practical grounds, and possible solutions of the problem, particularly as it affects international business transactions in the global economy. Dr Gharavi analyzes the relevant provisions in all major international arbitration conventions, as well as national laws on the annulment and enforcement of arbitral awards in force in more than fifty different countries. Among the book's most notable features are the following: invaluable information on, and an in-depth analysis of, the travaux préparatoires of the New York Convention pertaining to the articulation of annulment/enforcement controls; the effects of the cultural, judicial, and legal diversity of states; and clear elucidation of the interests that often separate North from South in the practice of arbitration. With detailed attention to theoretical and practical perspectives--especially as they reveal the dangers to which the enforcement of annulled awards can subject international business operators-- Dr Gharavi arrives, after consideration of all interests, at a global resolution aiming to establish an effective and harmonious international legal framework for the control of awards in accordance with the nature and mission of arbitration.

Lex Petrolea and International Investment Law

Author: Nima Mersadi Tabari
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317221354
Format: PDF
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Lex Petrolea and International Investment Law: Law and Practice in the Persian Gulf offers readers a detailed analysis of jurisprudence on the settlement of upstream petroleum disputes between host states in the Persian Gulf and foreign investors. Dr Nima Mersadi Tabari considers the historical, political, and socio-economic roots of the existing frameworks and levels of protection offered to foreign investors. With particular focus on petroleum-related disputes, he initially delivers a comprehensive survey of the jurisprudence of international investment law and investment treaty arbitration. Following on from this, in three dedicated chapters, the author provides in-depth analysis of the legal regimes governing the matter in the major producers of the region: Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Iran. A key resource for all professionals working on legal issues arising from foreign direct investments in natural resources, this book draws a detailed picture of the legal regime governing the upstream sector in the most important geographical region for the international oil and gas sector.

The Core Standard of International Investment Protection

Author: Alexandra Diehl
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789041138699
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book surveys and analyses the nature of FET as a new rule of customary law that is non-contingent and absolute in that it protects a given entity irrespective of the treatment which may be accorded to others. The author explores whether the often-heard criticism of the international investment protection regime is justified. The overarching questions are: Does the systems mixture of private arbitration and public law indeed undermine accountability and independence in judicial decision-making? Does it trump principles of legislative supremacy and, in the end, alter a central tenet of representative democracy? Among the far-reaching aspects of the subject covered are the following: the relationship of FET to human rights and other standards of protection; assumptions about reciprocity and mutuality; the treatification of foreign investment law; the special significance of the Energy Charter Treaty; ICSID as a self-contained system; identifying limitations on the parties freedom of choice; the protection of legitimate expectations; the relevance of investors conduct in FET proceedings; due process in administrative decision-making, and denial of judicial justice. Relevant case law is examined, and there are detailed descriptions of the main dispute resolution forums ICSID arbitration especially, but with due attention to the new UNCITRAL, the ICC Rules, the SCC and the LCIA Rules. This is a significant contribution to the debate over a controversial concept and its normative underpinnings. By analysing how states are bound by investment treaty obligations and how arbitrators deal with them, this book explains how the standards are continually shaped and scrutinized to respond to the needs of the actors engaged in an investment relationship."

Ownership Unbundling and Related Measures in the EU Energy Sector

Author: Tilman Michael Dralle
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319777971
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book provides the first comprehensive analysis of unbundling and, in particular, ownership unbundling policies from the perspective of international economic law. It does so by focusing on the prominent example of the EU’s energy sector and its Third Energy Package. Unbundling has become an increasingly crucial competition instrument in network-bound industries worldwide. It is designed to ensure access to bottleneck infrastructures on fair and non-discriminatory terms and thus to suppress the anti-competitive potential deriving from vertical integration in natural monopoly situations. While promoting important public policy objectives, unbundling policies have also raised a number of legal issues. This book analyzes how international economic law limits the adoption and maintenance of unbundling and related measures and also outlines how international trade law can play a ‘positive’ role in this field. As a result, it provides a valuable reference for academics, practitioners and policy-makers.

Arbitration Under International Investment Agreements

Author: Katia Yannaca-Small
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195340698
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Investor-state arbitration is a relatively new dispute settlement mechanism that allows foreign investors the opportunity to seek redress for damages arising out of breaches of investment-related treaty obligations by the governments of host countries. Claims are submitted to independent, international arbitration tribunals, which are called upon to interpret the treaty at hand. Because of the public interest involved in these cases, the awards of these tribunals are subject to much scrutiny and debate. Thus, it has already generated hundreds of cases and created new legal disciplines, inspiring a continuous string of legal writings. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the main issues that arise in investor-state arbitration. It accompanies the reader through the phases of such a procedure, starting with an examination of the instruments, which provide, in the overwhelming majority of the cases, the legal basis for the requests for such arbitration. It then continues with the launching of the arbitration procedure, followed by the analysis of the main jurisdictional and substantive issues that the tribunals are confronted with, and the review procedures, when there is a request for setting aside of the award. It finally looks at the post-award phase and concludes with a reflection on the role of precedent in investment arbitration. Arbitration under International Investment Agreements: a Guide to the Key Issues contains in one volume what everybody needs to know on this evolving topic. Calling on the most renowned experts in this field, private practitioners, academics, government and international organization officials, it describes the process in all its phases from A to Z, providing a comprehensive insight in the way investor-state arbitration works from the perspective of the main actors involved. Its analyses of all key aspects of the topic are pragmatic and reliable.

International Investment Arbitration

Author: Campbell McLachlan
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780199676804
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This is the long-awaited second edition of this widely-referenced work on the substantive law principles of investment treaty arbitration. It forms a detailed critical review of the substantive principles of international law applied by investment arbitration tribunals, and a clear and comprehensive description of the present state of the law. The first edition met with immediate success as a result of the authors' achievement in describing and analyzing the volume of law created, applied and analyzed by tribunals. The second edition is fully updated to take account of the arbitration awards rendered in the period since 2007. Written by an internationally recognized author team, it is now the most comprehensive and up to date work in its field and no practitioner or academic can afford to be without it. Key areas of coverage include: the instruments under which investment disputes arise; the legal basis of treaty arbitration; dispute resolution and parallel proceedings; who is a foreign investor, including nationality issues and foreign control; what is an investment; investors' substantive rights, including fair and equitable treatment; expropriation; compensation and remedies. Arbitration of overseas investment disputes is one of the fastest growing areas of international dispute resolution. The exponential growth of international investment in recent years has led to the signature of over two thousand Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) between foreign states, in addition to a wealth of multilateral treaties and other forms of concession agreements. The legal principles that have developed in this area are subject to intense debate, and are still in a state of flux. While tribunals routinely state that they are applying principles of public international law to determine disputes, many of the principles applied have only been developed recently in the context of investment treaty arbitrations, and tribunals are often guided more by the approaches taken by other tribunals, than by pre-existing doctrines of public international law. International Investment Arbitration: Substantive Principles is an important contribution to the collection and codification of the current state of practice in this field.