Learning and Awareness

Author: Ference Marton
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136495835
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book stems from more than 25 years of systematic research into the experience of learning undertaken by a research team trying to account for the obvious differences between more or less successful instances of learning in educational institutions. The book offers an answer in terms of the discovery of critical differences in the structure of the learner's awareness and critical differences in the meaning of the learner's world. The authors offer a detailed account of the empirical findings that give rise to theoretical insights, and discuss the particular form of qualitative research that has been employed and developed. The form of learning that is the object of study is considered to be the most fundamental form -- namely a change in the learner's way of seeing, experiencing, handling, and understanding aspects of the world. The need for rigorous analysis of learning of specific subject matter, the individual construction of knowledge, and its social and cultural embeddedness -- the defining features of rival approaches into research on learning -- are reconciled from the approach adopted here into an intertwined and whole experience of learning. The learner's experience is always one of learning something, in some way, and in some context; by holding the learner's experience of learning as the focus of study throughout -- and not studying the learning of the content and the acts and the context as separate and distinct focuses -- the content, the act, and the context remain united as constituents of the learner's experience. By empirically revealing critical differences in the ways of experiencing these aspects of learning, and by developing a theoretical framework for the dynamics through which change comes about in the learner's awareness, this book gradually leads the reader to a powerful new view of learning. Equipped with the analytical tools and conceptual apparatus to be found in this book, the reader will be empowered to learn and to assist others to learn by creating environments conducive to the most fundamental form of learning: experiencing aspects of the world in new ways.

Necessary Conditions of Learning

Author: Ference Marton
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317811933
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Necessary Conditions of Learning presents a research approach (phenomenography) and a theory (the variation theory of learning) introduced and developed by Ference Marton and taken up by his wide and varied following around the world—together with their practical applications in educational contexts. Reflecting Marton’s whole lifetime's work, the unique and significant contribution of this book is to offer an evidence-based answer to the questions "How do we make novel meanings our own?" and "How do we learn to see things in more powerful ways?" The presentation makes use of hundreds of empirical studies carried out in Europe and Asia which build on the theory. The line of reasoning and the way in which the examples are put together is consistent with the theory—it is both presented and applied. The main argument is that in order to learn we have to discern, and to discern the intended ideas we must be presented with carefully structured variation, against a background of invariance. We then go through processes of contrast, generalization, and fusion in order to make sense. These insights form a practical framework for those who design teaching and teaching materials. Necessary Conditions of Learning is a major original work for which scholars of pedagogical theory have been waiting a long time.

Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction

Author: Richard E. Mayer
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317566939
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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During the past 30 years, researchers have made exciting progress in the science of learning (i.e., how people learn) and the science of instruction (i.e., how to help people learn). This second edition of the Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction is intended to provide an overview of these research advances. With chapters written by leading researchers from around the world, this volume examines learning and instruction in a variety of learning environments including in classrooms and out of classrooms, and with a variety of learners including K-16 students and adult learners. Contributors to this volume demonstrate how and why educational practice should be guided by research evidence concerning what works in instruction. The Handbook is written at a level that is appropriate for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners interested in an evidence-based approach to learning and instruction. The book is divided into two sections: learning and instruction. The learning section consists of chapters on how people learn in reading, writing, mathematics, science, history, second language, and physical education, as well as how people acquire the knowledge and processes required for critical thinking, studying, self-regulation, and motivation. The instruction section consists of chapters on effective instructional methods—feedback, examples, questioning, tutoring, visualizations, simulations, inquiry, discussion, collaboration, peer modeling, and adaptive instruction. Each chapter in this second edition of the Handbook has been thoroughly revised to integrate recent advances in the field of educational psychology. Two chapters have been added to reflect advances in both helping students develop learning strategies and using technology to individualize instruction. As with the first edition, this updated volume showcases the best research being done on learning and instruction by traversing a broad array of academic domains, learning constructs, and instructional methods.

Handbook of Metacognition in Education

Author: Douglas J. Hacker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135591946
Format: PDF, Docs
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Providing comprehensive coverage of the theoretical bases of metacognition and its applications to educational practice, this compendium of focused and in-depth discussions from leading scholars in the field: represents an intersection of education, cognitive science, and technology; serves as a gateway to the literature for researchers and practitioners interested in one or more of the wide array of topics included; and sets the standard for scholarship for theoretical research and practical applications in this field. The Handbook of Metacognition in Education — covering Comprehension Strategies, Metacognitive Strategies, Metacomprehension, Writing, Science and Mathematics, Individual Differences, Self-Regulated Learning, Technology, Tutoring, and Measurement — is an essential resource for researchers, faculty, students, curriculum developers, teachers, and others interested in using research and theory on metacognition to guide and inform educational practice.

Raising Mental Health Awareness in Higher Education Emerging Research and Opportunities

Author: Martin, Melissa
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1522537945
Format: PDF
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The state of college students’ mental health is a growing phenomenon across university campuses. Educators often watch students struggle with academic, social, financial, and familial issues. Over the past decade, these issues have led to an increasing number of students exhibiting behavior related to anxiety, depression, and other mental health disorders. Raising Mental Health Awareness in Higher Education: Emerging Research and Opportunities describes the current state of college students’ mental health in the United States, influences that contribute to wavering mental health, factors that promote flourishing mental health, and interventions that support mental health. While highlighting present programs and activities, readers will find new methods that can be implemented to support the needs of college students. This book is an important resource for staff and faculty in postsecondary institutions seeking current research on the growing problem of mental health in higher education.

Handbook of Educational Psychology

Author: Patricia A. Alexander
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135283516
Format: PDF, ePub
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Sponsored by Division 15 of APA, the second edition of this groundbreaking book has been expanded to 41 chapters that provide unparalleled coverage of this far-ranging field. Internationally recognized scholars contribute up-to-date reviews and critical syntheses of the following areas: foundations and the future of educational psychology, learners’ development, individual differences, cognition, motivation, content area teaching, socio-cultural perspectives on teaching and learning, teachers and teaching, instructional design, teacher assessment, and modern perspectives on research methodologies, data, and data analysis. New chapters cover topics such as adult development, self-regulation, changes in knowledge and beliefs, and writing. Expanded treatment has been given to cognition, motivation, and new methodologies for gathering and analyzing data. The Handbook of Educational Psychology, Second Edition provides an indispensable reference volume for scholars, teacher educators, in-service practitioners, policy makers and the academic libraries serving these audiences. It is also appropriate for graduate level courses devoted to the study of educational psychology.

Design Research on Learning and Thinking in Educational Settings

Author: David Yun Dai
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113695631X
Format: PDF, Docs
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The key question this book addresses is how to identify and create optimal conditions for the kind of learning and development that is especially important for effectively functioning in the 21st century. Taking a new approach to this long-debated issue, it looks at how a design research-based science of learning (with its practical models and related design research) can provide insights and integrated models of how human beings actually function and grow in the social dynamics of educational settings with all their affordances and constraints. More specifically: How can specific domains or subject matters be taught for broad intellectual development? How can technology be integrated in enhancing human functioning? How can the social organization of classroom learning be optimized to create social norms for promoting deep intellectual engagement and personal growth? Part I is concerned with broad conceptual and technical issues regarding cultivating intellectual potential, with a focus on how design research might fill in an important a niche in addressing these issues. Part II presents specific design work in terms of design principles, models, and prototypes.

Creating Self Regulated Learners

Author: Linda Nilson
Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC.
ISBN: 1579228674
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"Nilson's contributions to higher education are substantial, and this book is another gift to all of us who care about good teaching and helping students become autonomous, deep learners."--John Zubizarreta, Professor of English, and Director of Honors & Faculty Development, Columbia College "...a veritable gold mine of effective learning strategies that are easy for faculty to teach and for students to learn. Most students can turn poor course performance into success if they are taught even a few of the strategies presented. However, relatively few students will implement new strategies if they are not required to do so by instructors. Nilson shows how to seamlessly introduce learning strategies into classes, thereby maximizing the possibility that students will become self-regulated learners who take responsibility for their own learning."--Saundra McGuire, Assistant Vice Chancellor (Ret.) & Professor of Chemistry, Louisiana State University Most of our students neither know how learning works nor what they have to do to ensure it, to the detriment both of their studies and their development as lifelong learners. The point of departure for this book is the literature on self-regulated learning that tells us that deep, lasting, independent learning requires learners to bring into play a range of cognitive skills, affective attitudes, and even physical activities - about which most students are wholly unaware; and that self-regulation, which has little to do with measured intelligence, can be developed by just about anyone and is a fundamental prerequisite of academic success. Linda Nilson provides the theoretical background to student self-regulation, the evidence that it enhances achievement, and the strategies to help students develop it. She presents an array of tested activities and assignments through which students can progressively reflect on, monitor and improve their learning skills; describes how they can be integrated with different course components and on various schedules; and elucidates how to intentionally and seamlessly incorporate them into course design to effectively meet disciplinary and student development objectives. Recognizing that most faculty are unfamiliar with these strategies, she also recommends how to prepare for introducing them into the classroom and adding more as instructors become more confident using them.

Adult Learning and Development

Author: M. Cecil Smith
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135686378
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Adult education occurs whenever individuals engage in sustained, systematic learning in order to affect changes in their attitudes, knowledge, skills, or belief systems. Learning, instruction, and developmental processes are the primary foci of educational psychology research and theorizing, but educational psychologists' work in these domains has centered primarily on the childhood and adolescent school years. More recently, however, a number of educational psychologists have studied learning and development in adulthood. The results of these efforts have resulted in what is now called adult educational psychology. The purpose of this volume is to introduce this new subfield within educational psychology. Section 1 focuses on the interplay between learning and development in adulthood, how various forms of instruction lead to different learning outcomes for adults, description of the diverse social contexts in which adult learning takes place, and the development of metacognitive knowledge across the life span. Section 2 describes both research and theory pertaining to adult intellectual functioning, thinking, and problem-solving skills within various contexts. Section 3 describes research in a variety of adult learning domains; discusses the cognitive and behavioral dimensions of reading in adulthood and the applications of reading in real-life circumstances; examines an educational intervention developed to promote forgiveness; and relates the outcomes of an intervention designed to educate parents about their children's mathematics learning. Section 4 summarizes the themes and issues running throughout this, the first book that has sought to span the gulf between adult education, adult development, and educational psychology.

Innovations in Educational Psychology

Author: Robert J. Sternberg, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780826121639
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"[This book] is solid in its topic coverage and deliveryÖ Readers will glean a multitude of new ideas from the theories and approaches presented in this book, ranging from cultural aspects of teaching to Sternberg's WICS model." --Doody's This book serves as a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art in educational psychology and applied cognitive science. The chapter authors, who are all leading researchers in this field, provide reviews of contemporary discoveries related to educational research that are both novel and forward-thinking. The book contains the cutting edge literature on genetics and neuroscience, cognitive science and its relation to critical thinking, reading-related phonological processes, cultural considerations in education, and much more. The research methods and perspectives discussed range from education and psychology, to artificial intelligence and economics, thus offering a breadth of knowledge and insight on the field of educational research. The authors provide numerous tools and models for both routine and non-routine decision-making in educational settings. Both psychologists and researchers in the fields of cognitive, developmental, educational, and cultural psychology will want this book on their bookshelf.