Learning and Awareness

Author: Ference Marton
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136495835
Format: PDF
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This book stems from more than 25 years of systematic research into the experience of learning undertaken by a research team trying to account for the obvious differences between more or less successful instances of learning in educational institutions. The book offers an answer in terms of the discovery of critical differences in the structure of the learner's awareness and critical differences in the meaning of the learner's world. The authors offer a detailed account of the empirical findings that give rise to theoretical insights, and discuss the particular form of qualitative research that has been employed and developed. The form of learning that is the object of study is considered to be the most fundamental form -- namely a change in the learner's way of seeing, experiencing, handling, and understanding aspects of the world. The need for rigorous analysis of learning of specific subject matter, the individual construction of knowledge, and its social and cultural embeddedness -- the defining features of rival approaches into research on learning -- are reconciled from the approach adopted here into an intertwined and whole experience of learning. The learner's experience is always one of learning something, in some way, and in some context; by holding the learner's experience of learning as the focus of study throughout -- and not studying the learning of the content and the acts and the context as separate and distinct focuses -- the content, the act, and the context remain united as constituents of the learner's experience. By empirically revealing critical differences in the ways of experiencing these aspects of learning, and by developing a theoretical framework for the dynamics through which change comes about in the learner's awareness, this book gradually leads the reader to a powerful new view of learning. Equipped with the analytical tools and conceptual apparatus to be found in this book, the reader will be empowered to learn and to assist others to learn by creating environments conducive to the most fundamental form of learning: experiencing aspects of the world in new ways.

Necessary Conditions of Learning

Author: Ference Marton
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317811941
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Necessary Conditions of Learning presents a research approach (phenomenography) and a theory (the variation theory of learning) introduced and developed by Ference Marton and taken up by his wide and varied following around the world—together with their practical applications in educational contexts. Reflecting Marton’s whole lifetime's work, the unique and significant contribution of this book is to offer an evidence-based answer to the questions "How do we make novel meanings our own?" and "How do we learn to see things in more powerful ways?" The presentation makes use of hundreds of empirical studies carried out in Europe and Asia which build on the theory. The line of reasoning and the way in which the examples are put together is consistent with the theory—it is both presented and applied. The main argument is that in order to learn we have to discern, and to discern the intended ideas we must be presented with carefully structured variation, against a background of invariance. We then go through processes of contrast, generalization, and fusion in order to make sense. These insights form a practical framework for those who design teaching and teaching materials. Necessary Conditions of Learning is a major original work for which scholars of pedagogical theory have been waiting a long time.

Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction

Author: Richard E. Mayer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136882146
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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During the past twenty years researchers have made exciting progress in the science of learning (i.e., how people learn) and the science of instruction (i.e., how to help people learn). This Handbook examines learning and instruction in a variety of classroom and non-classroom environments and with a variety of learners, both K-16 students and adult learners. The chapters are written by leading researchers from around the world, all of whom are highly regarded experts on their particular topics. The book is divided into two sections: learning and instruction. The learning section consists of chapters on how people learn in reading, writing, mathematics, science, history, second languages, and physical education, as well as learning to think critically, learning to self-monitor, and learning with motivation. The instruction section consists of chapters on effective instructional methods – feedback, examples, self-explanation, peer interaction, cooperative learning, inquiry, discussion, tutoring, visualizations, and computer simulations. Each chapter reviews empirical research in a specific domain and is structured as follows: Introduction – Defines key constructs and provides illustrative examples or cases. Historical Overview – Summarizes the historical context for the topic or domain. Theoretical Framework – Summarizes major models or theories related to the topic or domain. Current Trends and Issues – Synthesizes the research literature and highlights key findings or conclusions. Practical Implications – Suggests relevance of the research for educational practice. Future Directions – Considers next steps or stages needed for future research.

Psychology and Adult Learning

Author: Mark Tennant
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134190859
Format: PDF, ePub
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The third edition of this popular book examines the role of psychology in informing adult education practice and has been fully updated to reflect the effect of changes in the structure of society, globalisation, technology and the impact of postmodernism. It explores the traditions of key psychological theories and discusses issues and problems in applying them to an understanding of adult learning and development. It also examines the formation of identities and places increased emphasis on what it means to be a lifelong learner. Dealing with adult learning in a variety of contexts, the topics considered include: humanistic psychology self directed learners psychoanalytic approaches the formation of identities development of intelligence learning styles behaviourism group dynamics and group facilitators critical awareness.

Handbook of Self Regulation of Learning and Performance

Author: Barry J Zimmerman, PhD
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136881662
Format: PDF
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Self-regulated learning (or self-regulation) refers to the process whereby learners personally activate and sustain cognitions, affects, and behaviours that are systematically oriented toward the attainment of learning goals. This is the first volume to integrate into a single volume all aspects of the field of self-regulation of learning and performance: basic domains, applications to content areas, instructional issues, methodological issues, and individual differences. It draws on research from such diverse areas as cognitive, educational, clinical, social, and organizational psychology. Distinguishing features include: Chapter Structure – To ensure uniformity and coherence across chapters, each chapter author addresses the theoretical ideas underlying their topic, research evidence bearing on these ideas, future research directions, and implications for educational practice. International – Because research on self-regulation is increasingly global, a significant number of interntional contributors are included (see table of contents). Readable – In order to make the book accessible to students, chapters have been carefully edited for clarity, conciseness, and organizational consistency. Expertise – All chapters are written by leading researchers from around the world who are highly regarded experts on their particular topics and are active contributors to the field.

Handbook of Educational Psychology

Author: Patricia A. Alexander
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135283516
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Sponsored by Division 15 of APA, the second edition of this groundbreaking book has been expanded to 41 chapters that provide unparalleled coverage of this far-ranging field. Internationally recognized scholars contribute up-to-date reviews and critical syntheses of the following areas: foundations and the future of educational psychology, learners’ development, individual differences, cognition, motivation, content area teaching, socio-cultural perspectives on teaching and learning, teachers and teaching, instructional design, teacher assessment, and modern perspectives on research methodologies, data, and data analysis. New chapters cover topics such as adult development, self-regulation, changes in knowledge and beliefs, and writing. Expanded treatment has been given to cognition, motivation, and new methodologies for gathering and analyzing data. The Handbook of Educational Psychology, Second Edition provides an indispensable reference volume for scholars, teacher educators, in-service practitioners, policy makers and the academic libraries serving these audiences. It is also appropriate for graduate level courses devoted to the study of educational psychology.

Educational psychology

Author: Greg S. Goodman
Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Inc
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Critical constructivist pedagogy considers social justice and the freedom of students to learn as the most important aspects of the teacher's work in the classroom. Educational Psychology: An Application of Critical Constructivism is a clarion call for pre-service teachers to identify their students' needs and apply critical constructivist pedagogy to facilitate their learning. Collectively, these essays emphasize the need for pre-service teachers to consider their role as fundamental to the development of their students' leadership, and awareness of social justice and equality in education as critical for a healthier and saner world.

Innovations in Educational Psychology

Author: Robert J. Sternberg, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780826121639
Format: PDF, ePub
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"[This book] is solid in its topic coverage and deliveryÖ Readers will glean a multitude of new ideas from the theories and approaches presented in this book, ranging from cultural aspects of teaching to Sternberg's WICS model." --Doody's This book serves as a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art in educational psychology and applied cognitive science. The chapter authors, who are all leading researchers in this field, provide reviews of contemporary discoveries related to educational research that are both novel and forward-thinking. The book contains the cutting edge literature on genetics and neuroscience, cognitive science and its relation to critical thinking, reading-related phonological processes, cultural considerations in education, and much more. The research methods and perspectives discussed range from education and psychology, to artificial intelligence and economics, thus offering a breadth of knowledge and insight on the field of educational research. The authors provide numerous tools and models for both routine and non-routine decision-making in educational settings. Both psychologists and researchers in the fields of cognitive, developmental, educational, and cultural psychology will want this book on their bookshelf.

Design Research on Learning and Thinking in Educational Settings

Author: David Yun Dai
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113695631X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The key question this book addresses is how to identify and create optimal conditions for the kind of learning and development that is especially important for effectively functioning in the 21st century. Taking a new approach to this long-debated issue, it looks at how a design research-based science of learning (with its practical models and related design research) can provide insights and integrated models of how human beings actually function and grow in the social dynamics of educational settings with all their affordances and constraints. More specifically: How can specific domains or subject matters be taught for broad intellectual development? How can technology be integrated in enhancing human functioning? How can the social organization of classroom learning be optimized to create social norms for promoting deep intellectual engagement and personal growth? Part I is concerned with broad conceptual and technical issues regarding cultivating intellectual potential, with a focus on how design research might fill in an important a niche in addressing these issues. Part II presents specific design work in terms of design principles, models, and prototypes.

Metacognition in Educational Theory and Practice

Author: Douglas J. Hacker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135687412
Format: PDF, Docs
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This volume presents the most current perspectives on the role of metacognition in diverse educationally relevant domains. The purpose is to examine the ways in which theoretical investigations of metacognition have recently produced a strong focus on educational practice. The book is organized around four general themes relevant to education: metacognition and problem solving, metacognition and verbal comprehension, metacognition and the education of nontraditional populations, and metacognition and studentship. Chapter authors review current literature as it applies to their chapter topic; discuss theoretical implications and suggestions for future research; and provide educational applications. Each chapter describes testable theory and provides examples of how theory can be applied to the classroom. The volume will have wide appeal to researchers and students concerned with the scientific investigation of metacognition, and to practitioners concerned with the cultivation of learning and achievement in their students. The unique contribution of this book to the literature on metacognition is its presentation of the most current research examining specific theoretical aspects of metacognition in domains directly relevant to education. This is especially valuable for the many researchers and practitioners who subscribe to the concept that by fostering metacognitive processes during instruction, more durable and transferable learning can be achieved.