Learning Policy

Author: David K. Cohen
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300133340
Format: PDF, Docs
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Education reformers and policymakers argue that improved students’ learning requires stronger academic standards, stiffer state tests, and accountability for students’ scores. Yet these efforts seem not to be succeeding in many states. The authors of this important book argue that effective state reform depends on conditions which most reforms ignore: coherence in practice as well as policy and opportunities for professional learning. The book draws on a decade’s detailed study of California’s ambitious and controversial program to improve mathematics teaching and learning. Researchers David Cohen and Heather Hill report that state policy influenced teaching and learning when there was consistency among the tests and other policy instruments; when there was consistency among the curricula and other instruments of classroom practice; and when teachers had substantial opportunities to learn the practices proposed by the policy. These conditions were met for a minority of elementary school teachers in California. When the conditions were met for teachers, students had higher scores on state math tests. The book also shows that, for most teachers, the reform ended with consistency in state policy. They did not have access to consistent instruments of classroom practice, nor did they have opportunities to learn the new practices which state policymakers proposed. In these cases, neither teachers nor their students benefited from the state reform. This book offers insights into the ways policy and practice can be linked in successful educational reform and shows why such linkage has been difficult to achieve. It offers useful advice for practitioners and policymakers seeking to improve education, and to analysts seeking to understand it.

International Handbook of Educational Policy

Author: Nina Bascia
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402032011
Format: PDF, Docs
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Nina Bascia, Alister Cumming, Amanda Datnow, Kenneth Leithwood and David Livingstone This Handbook presents contemporary and emergent trends in educational policy research, in over ?fty chapters written by nearly ninety leading researchers from a number of countries. It is organized into ?ve broad sections which capture many of the current dominant educational policy foci and at the same time situate current understandings historically, in terms of both how they are conceptualized and in terms of past policy practice. The chapters themselves are empirically grounded, providing illustrations of the conceptual implications c- tained within them as well as allowing for comparisons across them. The se- re?exivity within chapters with respect to jurisdictional particularities and c- trasts allows readers to consider not only a range of approaches to policy analysis but also the ways in which policies and policy ideas play out in di?erent times and places. The sections move from a focus on prevailing policy tendencies through increasingly critical and ‘‘outsider’’ perspectives on policy. They address, in turn, the contemporary strategic emphasis on large-scale reform; substantive emphases at several levels – on leadership and governance, improving teacher quality and conceptualizing learning in various domains around the notion of literacies and concluding, ?nally, with a contrasting topic, workplace learning, which has had less policy attention and thus allows readers to consider both the advantages and disadvantages of learning and teaching under the bright gaze of policy.

Teacher Mediated Agency in Educational Reform in China

Author: Hongzhi Yang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319159259
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book examines teacher agency in implementing English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum reform in the Chinese university context. It theorizes the concept of teacher agency from a sociocultural theory perspective and draws on a study conducted in a conservative and less developed area in China. The book uses Engeström's activity theory and Vygotsky's concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to understand the nature and extent of teacher agency in adapting one’s teaching with respect to beliefs, knowledge and instructional practices. The study concludes that curriculum reform in China needs to shift from reliance on 'top-down' policies to 'bottom-up' implementation that mobilizes local understandings and practices. One of the implications of this study is that transformative teacher education programs aimed at developing teacher pedagogical agency require that teachers have ongoing opportunities to design, develop and evaluate curriculum-based mediational means.

Education and the Nation State

Author: S. Gopinathan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136157042
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In the World Library of Educationalists series, international experts themselves compile career-long collections of what they judge to be their finest pieces - extracts from books, key articles, salient research findings, major theoretical and practical contributions - so the world can read them in a single manageable volume. In a career spanning four decades, S. Gopinathan is considered by many to be a pillar of teacher education in Singapore. He has played a key role in the establishment and transformation of Singapore's education system, pioneering many programmes and advising on policy both nationally and internationally. In the process, he has contributed over 25 books (authored, co-authored and edited) and 115 articles and book chapters to the field, and continues to inspire and empower younger colleagues in the region to challenge the cause for excellence in education and education reform. In Education and the Nation State, S. Gopinathan brings together 14 of his key writings in one volume. Starting with a specially written introduction, which gives an overview of Gopinathan's career and contextualises his selection, the essays are then arranged thematically, providing an overview not just of his own career, but also reflecting the development and key concerns of education in the nation state that is Singapore.

Effective Implementation In Practice

Author: Jodi Sandfort
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118986156
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A unique approach to policy implementation with essential guidance and useful tools Effective Implementation in Practice: Integrating Public Policy and Management presents an instrumental approach to implementation analysis. By spanningpolicy fields, organizations, and frontline conditions in implementation systems, this book provides a robust foundation for policy makers, public and nonprofit managers and leaders. Detailed case studies enable readers to identify key intervention points, become more strategic, and improve outcomes. The engaging style and specific examples provide a bridge to practice, while diagrams, worksheets, and other tools included in the appendix help managers apply these ideas to team meetings, operational planning, and program assessment and refinement. Policy and program implementation is fraught with challenges as public and nonprofit leaders juggle organizational missions and stakeholder expectations while managing policy and program impact and effectiveness. Using their own experience in practice, teaching, and research, the authors empower policy and program implementers to recognize their essential roles within the workplace and help them cultivate the analytical and social skills necessary to change. Understand how program or policy technology constitutes the core of implementation Study a conceptual framework encompassing power dynamics, culture, relationships in the field and the rules that are operating during program and policy implementation Discover a multilevel approach that identifies key points of strategic action at various levels and settings of the implementation system and assesses implementation success The integration of policy and management mindsets gives readers an insightful yet accessible understanding of implementation, allowing them to achieve the potent results desired by the public. For those in senior positions at federal agencies to local staff at nonprofit organizations, Effective Implementation in Practice: Integrating Public Policy and Management provides an invaluable one-stop resource.

The Work of Language in Multicultural Classrooms

Author: Katherine Richardson Bruna
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135269378
Format: PDF, Docs
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How does language comprise the implicit or explicit curriculum of teaching and learning in multicultural science settings? Building on a growing interest in the ways in which language and literacy practices interact with science teaching and learning to facilitate or obstruct successful student outcomes, this book contributes to scholarship on the role of language in developing classroom scientific communities of practice, expands that work by highlighting the challenges faced specifically by ethnic- and linguistic-"minority" students and their teachers in joining those communities, and showcases exemplary teaching and research initiatives for helping to meet these challenges. Offering teacher practitioners and researchers in the fields of science education and multicultural education lenses through which they can critically consider the myriad of classroom settings, instructional approaches, curricular materials, and scientific topics involved in what it means to teach science while pointedly addressing concerns about equity of educational opportunity, this volume serves as a powerful resource for linking theory and practice. End-of-chapter reflection questions and engagement activities facilitate discussion round these issues and provide rich opportunities for the reader to consider the implications of each chapter for science instruction and research and to apply insights developed in a real-world science teaching and learning contexts.

Meaningful Urban Education Reform

Author: Kathryn M. Borman
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791483879
Format: PDF
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Summarizes findings of a long-term study of math and science education reforms in Chicago, El Paso, Memphis, and Miami.

Methods Matter

Author: Richard J. Murnane
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199890153
Format: PDF
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Educational policy-makers around the world constantly make decisions about how to use scarce resources to improve the education of children. Unfortunately, their decisions are rarely informed by evidence on the consequences of these initiatives in other settings. Nor are decisions typically accompanied by well-formulated plans to evaluate their causal impacts. As a result, knowledge about what works in different situations has been very slow to accumulate. Over the last several decades, advances in research methodology, administrative record keeping, and statistical software have dramatically increased the potential for researchers to conduct compelling evaluations of the causal impacts of educational interventions, and the number of well-designed studies is growing. Written in clear, concise prose, Methods Matter: Improving Causal Inference in Educational and Social Science Research offers essential guidance for those who evaluate educational policies. Using numerous examples of high-quality studies that have evaluated the causal impacts of important educational interventions, the authors go beyond the simple presentation of new analytical methods to discuss the controversies surrounding each study, and provide heuristic explanations that are also broadly accessible. Murnane and Willett offer strong methodological insights on causal inference, while also examining the consequences of a wide variety of educational policies implemented in the U.S. and abroad. Representing a unique contribution to the literature surrounding educational research, this landmark text will be invaluable for students and researchers in education and public policy, as well as those interested in social science.

Discipline Based Education Research

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309254140
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The National Science Foundation funded a synthesis study on the status, contributions, and future direction of discipline-based education research (DBER) in physics, biological sciences, geosciences, and chemistry. DBER combines knowledge of teaching and learning with deep knowledge of discipline-specific science content. It describes the discipline-specific difficulties learners face and the specialized intellectual and instructional resources that can facilitate student understanding. Discipline-Based Education Research is based on a 30-month study built on two workshops held in 2008 to explore evidence on promising practices in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This book asks questions that are essential to advancing DBER and broadening its impact on undergraduate science teaching and learning. The book provides empirical research on undergraduate teaching and learning in the sciences, explores the extent to which this research currently influences undergraduate instruction, and identifies the intellectual and material resources required to further develop DBER. Discipline-Based Education Research provides guidance for future DBER research. In addition, the findings and recommendations of this report may invite, if not assist, post-secondary institutions to increase interest and research activity in DBER and improve its quality and usefulness across all natural science disciples, as well as guide instruction and assessment across natural science courses to improve student learning. The book brings greater focus to issues of student attrition in the natural sciences that are related to the quality of instruction. Discipline-Based Education Research will be of interest to educators, policy makers, researchers, scholars, decision makers in universities, government agencies, curriculum developers, research sponsors, and education advocacy groups.

Education in Crisis

Author: Judith A. Gouwens
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 159884170X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A description and critique of education reform in the United States since the 1950s, focusing on the current condition of American schools and efforts to increase both educational opportunity and overall excellence. * Includes biographical sketches of school reformers and other influential figures in education reform in the United States, including David Berliner, Rod Paige, Nel Noddings, and Gloria Ladson Billings * A Data and Documents chapter features the text of A Nation at Risk (1983), data from the National Assessment of Education Process (NAEP) and Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Brown v. Topeka Board of Education, excerpts from the National Defense Education Act (NDEA), the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), No Child Left Behind (NCLB), and other important resources