Legal Evidence and Proof

Author: Henry Prakken
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317106296
Format: PDF, Mobi
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As a result of recent scandals concerning evidence and proof in the administration of criminal justice - ranging from innocent people on death row in the United States to misuse of statistics leading to wrongful convictions in The Netherlands and elsewhere - inquiries into the logic of evidence and proof have taken on a new urgency both in an academic and practical sense. This study presents a broad perspective on logic by focusing on inference not just in isolation but as embedded in contexts of procedure and investigation. With special attention being paid to recent developments in Artificial Intelligence and the Law, specifically related to evidentiary reasoning, this book provides clarification of problems of logic and argumentation in relation to evidence and proof. As the vast majority of legal conflicts relate to contested facts, rather than contested law, this volume concerning facts as prime determinants of legal decisions presents an important contribution to the field for both scholars and practitioners.

Argumentation in Artificial Intelligence

Author: Iyad Rahwan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387981977
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Argumentation is all around us. Letters to the Editor often make points of cons- tency, and “Why” is one of the most frequent questions in language, asking for r- sons behind behaviour. And argumentation is more than ‘reasoning’ in the recesses of single minds, since it crucially involves interaction. It cements the coordinated social behaviour that has allowed us, in small bands of not particularly physically impressive primates, to dominate the planet, from the mammoth hunt all the way up to organized science. This volume puts argumentation on the map in the eld of Arti cial Intelligence. This theme has been coming for a while, and some famous pioneers are chapter authors, but we can now see a broader systematic area emerging in the sum of topics and results. As a logician, I nd this intriguing, since I see AI as ‘logic continued by other means’, reminding us of broader views of what my discipline is about. Logic arose originally out of re ection on many-agent practices of disputation, in Greek Ant- uity, but also in India and China. And logicians like me would like to return to this broader agenda of rational agency and intelligent interaction. Of course, Aristotle also gave us a formal systems methodology that deeply in uenced the eld, and eventually connected up happily with mathematical proof and foundations.

Handbook of Legal Reasoning and Argumentation

Author: Giorgio Bongiovanni
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9048194520
Format: PDF
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This handbook addresses legal reasoning and argumentation from a logical, philosophical and legal perspective. The main forms of legal reasoning and argumentation are covered in an exhaustive and critical fashion, and are analysed in connection with more general types (and problems) of reasoning. Accordingly, the subject matter of the handbook divides in three parts. The first one introduces and discusses the basic concepts of practical reasoning. The second one discusses the general structures and procedures of reasoning and argumentation that are relevant to legal discourse. The third one looks at their instantiations and developments of these aspects of argumentation as they are put to work in the law, in different areas and applications of legal reasoning.

Logic

Author: Nicholas Jeremy Josef Smith
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691151636
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Provides an essential introduction to classical logic.

Conjectures and Refutations

Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135971374
Format: PDF
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Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Proofs from THE BOOK

Author: Martin Aigner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662572656
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This revised and enlarged sixth edition of Proofs from THE BOOK features an entirely new chapter on Van der Waerden’s permanent conjecture, as well as additional, highly original and delightful proofs in other chapters. From the citation on the occasion of the 2018 "Steele Prize for Mathematical Exposition" “... It is almost impossible to write a mathematics book that can be read and enjoyed by people of all levels and backgrounds, yet Aigner and Ziegler accomplish this feat of exposition with virtuoso style. [...] This book does an invaluable service to mathematics, by illustrating for non-mathematicians what it is that mathematicians mean when they speak about beauty.” From the Reviews "... Inside PFTB (Proofs from The Book) is indeed a glimpse of mathematical heaven, where clever insights and beautiful ideas combine in astonishing and glorious ways. There is vast wealth within its pages, one gem after another. ... Aigner and Ziegler... write: "... all we offer is the examples that we have selected, hoping that our readers will share our enthusiasm about brilliant ideas, clever insights and wonderful observations." I do. ... " Notices of the AMS, August 1999 "... This book is a pleasure to hold and to look at: ample margins, nice photos, instructive pictures and beautiful drawings ... It is a pleasure to read as well: the style is clear and entertaining, the level is close to elementary, the necessary background is given separately and the proofs are brilliant. ..." LMS Newsletter, January 1999 "Martin Aigner and Günter Ziegler succeeded admirably in putting together a broad collection of theorems and their proofs that would undoubtedly be in the Book of Erdös. The theorems are so fundamental, their proofs so elegant and the remaining open questions so intriguing that every mathematician, regardless of speciality, can benefit from reading this book. ... " SIGACT News, December 2011

Throw Away Your Vision Board

Author: Neil E. Farber, M.D.
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781507847305
Format: PDF
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Are you like so many people who have tried unsuccessfully to attain your goals with a vision board? Vision boards are based on the so-called, law of attraction; like always attracts like. As in the book, The Secret, if you think it and live it, the universe will deliver it to you. Unfortunately, the law of attraction does not work 99.9% of the time. In his thorough and candid analysis, Dr. Farber takes you through a fascinating history of the law of attraction as well as the good, the bad, and the ugly side of vision boards. As a certified "Advanced Law of Attraction Practitioner," Dr. Farber exposes the truth about the law of attraction. He shows how believing in this "law" may be detrimental to your health, inhibit your compassion for others, decrease your motivation, and lessen your chance of achieving goals. This is not just a book about what not to do. This book shows us how to upgrade our vision boards and boost our success by utilizing mind-brain science and positive psychology research. Dr. Farber has the solution to our goal-achieving desires. He introduces us to the "Key to Achieve Principles" and The Action Board goal-achieving system. As the inventor of The Action Board, Dr. Farber is the world's leading expert in this system!

Analogy and Exemplary Reasoning in Legal Discourse

Author: Hendrik Kaptein
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789462985902
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book brings together contributions from leading figures in legal studies on analogy and related forms of reasoning in the law. Analogical reasoning--which relies on the concept of two different things being in some way like each other--is hugely important not just in the practice of law, but it is nonetheless strongly contested. This volume raises key questions like: What is the logical, argumentative, rhetorical, or just heuristic force of analogy in law? Is analogy really different from extensive interpretation, reasoning by precedent and appeal to paradigm?