Letter of Intent in International Contracting

Author: Ekaterina Pannebakker
Publisher: Intersentia
ISBN: 9781780684499
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Letter of Intent in International Contracting provides readers with a unique point of reference on the legal effects of a letter of intent-the document frequently used in international transactions. Firstly, the book takes a fresh look at trade usages in negotiations of international contracts. It integrates the view of negotiations as strategies and tactics (well-known in business, but largely disregarded by the law) with the legal analysis. Secondly, it discusses in turn those provisions frequently used in a letter of intent and comments on them based on thorough comparative research of four jurisdictions: the Netherlands, France, England and Wales, and the United States. The discussion of French law is based on the recent reform of the French law of obligations which significantly modified the French Civil Code in 2016. At the international level, the study addresses the 1980 Vienna Convention on the International Sale of Goods and international soft law: UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 2010, Principles of European Contract Law, and the Draft Common Frame of Reference. This book is a result of doctoral research conducted at the Erasmus University Rotterdam. It will be relevant to legal practitioners working in the field of international contracts, as well as to scholars and policy makers concerned with harmonization of law based on non-binding principles and business practices. Dissertation. (Series: Ius Commune Europaeum, Vol. 156) [Subject: International Law, Contract Law]

The Making of European Private Law

Author: J. M. Smits
Publisher: Intersentia nv
ISBN: 9050951910
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Over the last decade, Europe has witnessed the emergence of a vigorous debate about the need for and the feasibility of a future European ius commune in the field of private law. This book critically discusses this debate and provides a systematic overview of the various initiatives taken and describes the fragmentary European private law that already exists (by way of European directives, international conventions, etc.).

Information and Notification Duties

Author: Ilse Samoy
Publisher: Intersentia
ISBN: 9781780683539
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Technological and economical developments require contracting parties to be informed and advised: informed about the characteristics of the services or the goods they order; well advised about their choices and options; informed about the remedies that may be used against them; and well protected from the consequences of a lack of information or notification. This book analyses several aspects of these information and notification duties. It is the result of fruitful collaboration as part of the Ius Commune Research School's Contract Law and Law of Obligations research programme. Information and notification duties were the theme of a contract law workshop during the 19th Ius Commune Conference in Edinburgh in November 2014. This book contains the proceedings of that workshop, with contributions by Sanne Jansen (Leuven), Johanna Waelkens (Leuven), Johan Vannerom (Leuven), Carien de Jager (Groningen), Joasia Luzak (Amsterdam), Gerard de Vries (Amsterdam), and Mark Kawakami and Catalina Goanta (Maastricht), with an introduction by Ilse Samoy (Leuven) and Marco B.M. Loos (Amsterdam).

The Effect of a Change of Circumstances on the Binding Force of Contracts

Author: Rodrigo Andres Momberg Uribe
Publisher: Intersentia Uitgevers N V
ISBN: 9781780680057
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book studies the situation where unexpected circumstances render the performance of a contract much more difficult or onerous, as well as those circumstances which frustrate the purpose of the transaction. The complexity of modern contractual relationships and, in general, of the social and economic environment, requires similar weight to be given to values other than the classical values of freedom, security, and certainty. Cooperation, solidarity, and flexibility have gained importance. In this context, the recognition of a change of circumstances as a remedy for the affected party may be considered as another aspect of the renewed importance of justice and fairness as a counterbalance to the general principle of freedom of contract. In particular, the affected party is entitled to rely on a proper set of remedies directed at the restoration of the agreement until the limit of an adequate sacrifice for the debtor, which includes the duty to renegotiate and, in the case of the renegotiations failing, the revision of the contract by the courts. Thus, the contract may be considered to be a union of balanced interests, an instrument of loyal cooperation, and a result of the mutual confidence between the parties. The study includes a comparative analysis of European and Latin American jurisdictions, as well as US contract law. In addition to national jurisdictions, the book also examines how modern model codes or restatements of international contract law deal with this problem. Because of its broad comparative analysis, this is a useful tool to national and regional legislators, as well as to judges and parties involved in cases in which a supervening and unforeseen change of circumstances has severely altered the performance of the contract. (Series: Ius Commune Europaeum - Vol. 94)

Investment Treaty Arbitration and Public Law

Author: Gus Van Harten
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780199552146
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The recent explosion of investment treaty arbitration marks a revolutionary change in both international and public law, above all because it demonstrates how states have unwittingly privatized key powers of the courts in public law. This book outlines investment treaty arbitration as a public law system, by precisely demonstrating the significance of giving arbitrators comprehensive jurisdiction to decide regulatory disputes between business and state. In doing so, it exposes some startling consequences of transplanting rules of commercial arbitration into the regulatory sphere. First, private arbitrators can award compensation to investors in ways that go well beyond domestic systems of state liability in public law. Second, these awards can be enforced in as many as 165 countries, making them more widely enforceable than other judicial decisions in public law. Third, public law can be interpreted in private as a matter of course, without any appeal to a court to correct errors of law. The conflict between private arbitration and public law poses a serious challenge to open and accountable judging. But the critical flaw of the system - hitherto neglected - is its threat to judicial independence based on security of tenure. Under investment treaties, business claims against the state are decided by privately-contracted adjudicators, who win appointments only as more claims are brought. Thus, as the book explains, the 'judge' has a financial stake in how public law is interpreted and in the outcome of the dispute. While it is laudable to use international adjudication to resolve controversial disputes, the benefits of a global economy are no excuse for corrupting our historic tradition of independent courts.

The Law s Delay

Author: C. H. van Rhee
Publisher: Intersentia nv
ISBN: 9050953883
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Papers from a conference organised by Maastricht University Faculty of Law on 24-25 April 2003.

The Principle of Numerus Clausus in European Property Law

Author: Bram Akkermans
Publisher: Intersentia Uitgevers N V
ISBN: 9789050958240
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In order to develop a framework that can form a basis for the development of a European property law, this book provides a comparative analysis of property law from the perspective of four European legal systems and European law, focusing on the numerus clausus principle. The book offers theoretical insights on how substantive property law, European law, and, to a certain extent, private international law intersect. The principle of numerus clausus, one of the fundamental principles of property law, is adhered to by most legal systems. In this book, an analysis of the property law systems of France, Germany, the Netherlands, and England is provided. A description is given of the content of available property rights in each of these systems, followed by an examination as to whether these rights form a closed system and whether private parties are given freedom to shape property rights, or even create new types of rights. In the last decades, property law has come under pressure to allow more party autonomy. In other words, property law has become more and more subject to pressure from contract law. Private parties attempt to draft their contracts in such a way that their contractual arrangements are given property effect. Sometimes they also attempt to make use of a property right in a way that was not foreseen by legislature or courts. As a result, rights have come into existence that are intermediary between the law of contract and the law of property. Moreover, the systems of property law are also subject to a growing influence from European legislation. The development of the internal market in the European Union increasingly forces Member States to answer the question whether and, if the answer is affirmative, in what way property rights created in another Member State should be recognized. Substantive property law intersects here. Until now, national legal systems generally resist this influence of European law and use the principle of numerous clausus as a justification. It is to be questioned whether the numerus clauses principle can still act as a guardian against the influence of foreign and European law.

The Draft Common Frame of Reference

Author: Vincent Sagaert
Publisher: Intersentia Uitgevers N V
ISBN: 9789400002166
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) is the result of more than 25 years of academic research on European private law. The final academic version of the DCFR was published in October 2009, and currently the European Commission is undertaking a selection process in order to determine which parts of the DCFR will be included in a 'political' CFR. Against this background, this book presents and critically analyzes the DCFR and situates it in relation to current Belgian law. (Series: Ius Commune Europaeum - Vol. 99)

Perspectives for the Unification and Harmonisation of Family Law in Europe

Author: Katharina Boele-Woelki
Publisher: Intersentia nv
ISBN: 9050952879
Format: PDF, ePub
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Is the unification and harmonisation of (international) family law in Europe necessary? Is it feasible, desirable and possible? Reading the different contributions to this book may certainly inspire those who would like to find the right answers to these questions.

Taming Ares War Interstate Law and Humanitarian Discourse in Classical Greece

Author: Emiliano J. Buis
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004363823
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In Taming Ares Emiliano J. Buis studies the narrative foundations of the (il)legality of warfare in the classical Greek world in order to demonstrate its contribution to a better historical understanding of the international legal rules applicable to the use of force and the conduct of hostilities.