Lignin and Lignans as Renewable Raw Materials

Author: Calvo-flores
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118597869
Format: PDF, ePub
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As naturally occurring and abundant sources of non–fossil carbon, lignin and lignans offer exciting possibilities as a source of commercially valuable products, moving away from petrochemical–based feedstocks in favour of renewable raw materials. Lignin can be used directly in fields such as agriculture, livestock, soil rehabilitation, bioremediation and the polymer industry, or it can be chemically modified for the fabrication of specialty and high–value chemicals such as resins, adhesives, fuels and greases. Lignin and Lignans as Renewable Raw Materials presents a multidisciplinary overview of the state–of–the–art and future prospects of lignin and lignans. The book discusses the origin, structure, function and applications of both types of compounds, describing the main resources and values of these products as carbon raw materials. Topics covered include: Structure and physicochemical properties Lignin detection methods Biosynthesis of lignin Isolation methods Characterization and modification of lignins Applications of modified and unmodified lignins Lignans: structure, chemical and biological properties Future perspectives This book is a comprehensive resource for researchers, scientists and engineers in academia and industry working on new possibilities for the application of renewable raw materials. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs

Sustainability Assessment of Renewables Based Products

Author: Jo Dewulf
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118933923
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Over the past decade, renewables-based technology and sustainability assessment methods have grown tremendously. Renewable energy and products have a significant role in the market today, and the same time sustainability assessment methods have advanced, with a growing standardization of environmental sustainability metrics and consideration of social issues as part of the assessment. Sustainability Assessment of Renewables-Based Products: Methods and Case Studies is an extensive update and sequel to the 2006 title Renewables-Based Technology: Sustainability Assessment. It discusses the impressive evolution and role renewables have taken in our modern society, highlighting the importance of sustainability principles in the design phase of renewable-based technologies, and presenting a wide range of sustainability assessment methods suitable for renewables-based technologies, together with case studies to demonstrate their applications. This book is a valuable resource for academics, businesses and policy makers who are active in contributing to more sustainable production and consumption. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs Topics covered include: The growing role of renewables in our society Sustainability in the design phase of products and processes Principles of sustainability assessment Land use analysis Water use analysis Material and energy flow analysis Exergy and cumulative exergy analysisCarbon and environmental footprint methods Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), social Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) Case studies: renewable energy, bio-based chemicals and bio-based materials.

Lignin in Polymer Composites

Author: Omar Faruk
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0323355668
Format: PDF
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Lignin in Polymer Composites presents the latest information on lignin, a natural polymer derived from renewable resources that has great potential as a reinforcement material in composites because it is non-toxic, inexpensive, available in large amounts, and is starting to be deployed in various materials applications due to its advantages over more traditional oil-based materials. This book reviews the state-of-the-art on the topic and their applications to composites, including thermoplastic, thermosets, rubber, foams, bioplastics, nanocomposites, and lignin-based carbon fiber composites. In addition, the book covers critical assessments on the economics of lignin, including a cost-performance analysis that discusses its strengths and weaknesses as a reinforcement material. Finally, the huge potential applications of lignin in industry are explored with respect to its low cost, recyclable properties, and fully biodegradable composites, and the way they apply to the automotive, construction, and packaging industries. Reviews the state-of-the-art on the topic and their applications to composites, including thermoplastic, thermosets, rubber, foams, bioplastics, nanocomposites, and lignin-based carbon fiber composites Presents the essential processing and properties information for engineers and materials scientists, enabling the use of lignin in composites Provides critical insight into the applications and future trends of lignin-based composites, including advantages, shortcomings, and economics Includes a thorough coverage of extraction, modification, processing, and applications of the material

Nanoporous Catalysts for Biomass Conversion

Author: Feng-Shou Xiao
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119128102
Format: PDF
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A comprehensive introduction to the design, synthesis, characterization, and catalytic properties of nanoporous catalysts for the biomass conversion With the specter of peak oil demand looming on the horizon, and mounting concerns over the environmental impact of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass has taken on a prominent role as a sustainable alternative fuel source. One critical aspect of the biomass challenge is the development of novel catalytic materials for effective and controllable biomass conversion. Edited by two scientists recognized internationally for their pioneering work in the field, this book focuses on nanoporous catalysts, the most promising class of catalytic materials for the conversion of biomass into fuel and other products. Although various catalysts have been used in the conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks, nanoporous catalysts exhibit high catalytic activities and/or unique product selectivities due to their large surface area, open nanopores, and highly dispersed active sites. This book covers an array of nanoporous catalysts currently in use for biomass conversion, including resins, metal oxides, carbons, mesoporous silicates, polydivinylbenzene, and zeolites. The authors summarize the design, synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties of these nanoporous catalysts for biomass conversions, discussing the features of these catalysts and considering future opportunities for developing more efficient catalysts. Topics covered include: Resins for biomass conversion Supported metal oxides/sulfides for biomass oxidation and hydrogenation Nanoporous metal oxides Ordered mesoporous silica-based catalysts Sulfonated carbon catalysts Porous polydivinylbenzene Aluminosilicate zeolites for bio-oil upgrading Rice straw Hydrogenation for sugar conversion Lignin depolymerization Timely, authoritative, and comprehensive, Nanoporous Catalysts for Biomass Conversion is a valuable working resource for academic researchers, industrial scientists and graduate students working in the fields of biomass conversion, catalysis, materials science, green and sustainable chemistry, and chemical/process engineering.

Bio Based Solvents

Author: François Jérà ́me
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119065445
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A multidisciplinary overview of bio-derived solvent applications, life cycle analysis, and strategies required for industrial commercialization This book provides the first and only comprehensive review of the state-of-the-science in bio-derived solvents. Drawing on their own pioneering work in the field, as well as an exhaustive survey of the world literature on the subject, the authors cover all the bases—from bio-derived solvent applications to life cycle analysis to strategies for industrial commercialization—for researchers and professional chemists working across a range of industries. In the increasingly critical area of sustainable chemistry, the search for new and better green solvents has become a top priority. Thanks to their renewability, biodegradability and low toxicity, as well as their potential to promote advantageous organic reactions, green solvents offer the promise of significantly reducing the pernicious effects of chemical processes on human health and the environment. Following an overview of the current solvents markets and the challenges and opportunities presented by bio-derived solvents, a series of dedicated chapters cover all significant classes of solvent arranged by origin and/or chemical structure. Throughout, real-world examples are used to help demonstrate the various advantages, drawbacks, and limitations of each class of solvent. Topics covered include: The commercial potential of various renewably sourced solvents, such as glycerol The various advantages and disadvantages of bio-derived versus petroleum-based solvents Renewably-sourced and waste-derived solvents in the design of eco-efficient processes Life cycle assessment and predictive methods for bio-based solvents Industrial and commercial viability of bio-based solvents now and in the years ahead Potential and limitations of methodologies involving bio-derived solvents New developments and emerging trends in the field and the shape of things to come Considering the vast potential for new and better products suggested by recent developments in this exciting field, Bio-Based Solvents will be a welcome resource among students and researchers in catalysis, organic synthesis, electrochemistry, and pharmaceuticals, as well as industrial chemists involved in manufacturing processes and formulation, and policy makers.

Experimental Organic Chemistry

Author: Joaquín Isac-García
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128039353
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Experimental Organic Chemistry: Laboratory Manual is designed as a primer to initiate students in Organic Chemistry laboratory work. Organic Chemistry is an eminently experimental science that is based on a well-established theoretical framework where the basic aspects are well established but at the same time are under constant development. Therefore, it is essential for future professionals to develop a strong background in the laboratory as soon as possible, forming good habits from the outset and developing the necessary skills to address the challenges of the experimental work. This book is divided into three parts. In the first, safety issues in laboratories are addressed, offering tips for keeping laboratory notebooks. In the second, the material, the main basic laboratory procedures, preparation of samples for different spectroscopic techniques, Microscale, Green Chemistry, and qualitative organic analysis are described. The third part consists of a collection of 84 experiments, divided into 5 modules and arranged according to complexity. The last two chapters are devoted to the practices at Microscale Synthesis and Green Chemistry, seeking alternatives to traditional Organic Chemistry. Organizes lab course coverage in a logical and useful way Features a valuable chapter on Green Chemistry Experiments Includes 84 experiments arranged according to increasing complexity

Biodegradable and Biobased Polymers for Environmental and Biomedical Applications

Author: Susheel Kalia
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119117356
Format: PDF, Docs
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This volume incorporates 13 contributions from renowned experts from the relevant research fields that are related biodegradable and biobased polymers and their environmental and biomedical applications. Specifically, the book highlights: Developments in polyhydroxyalkanoates applications in agriculture, biodegradable packaging material and biomedical field like drug delivery systems, implants, tissue engineering and scaffolds The synthesis and elaboration of cellulose microfibrils from sisal fibres for high performance engineering applications in various sectors such as the automotive and aerospace industries, or for building and construction The different classes and chemical modifications of tannins Electro-activity and applications of Jatropha latex and seed The synthesis, properties and applications of poly(lactic acid) The synthesis, processing and properties of poly(butylene succinate), its copolymers, composites and nanocomposites The different routes for preparation polymers from vegetable oil and the effects of reinforcement and nano-reinforcement on the physical properties of such biobased polymers The different types of modified drug delivery systems together with the concept of the drug delivery matrix for controlled release of drugs and for antitumor drugs The use of nanocellulose as sustainable adsorbents for the removal of water pollutants mainly heavy metal ions, organic molecules, dyes, oil and CO2 The main extraction techniques, structure, properties and different chemical modifications of lignins Proteins and nucleic acids based biopolymers The role of tamarind seed polysaccharide-based multiple-unit systems in sustained drug release

Lignin and Lignans

Author: Cyril Heitner
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420015805
Format: PDF, ePub
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Over the past four decades, there has been immense progress in every area of lignin science, ranging from the enzymology of lignin biodegradation, to the delignification of wood fiber during pulping and bleaching, to advances in spectroscopy. Lignin and Lignans: Advances in Chemistry captures the developments that have been achieved by world-class scientists in the most critical aspects of this burgeoning field. Tools for the characterization of lignin and lignans After an overview of the topic, the book discusses the significance and comparative performances of the most commonly used chemical degradation methods and presents lignin structural information based on the use of these methods. Next, the book explores spectroscopic methods, including UV-visible absorption, fluorescence, Raman, infra red (IR), near-infrared (NIR), nuclear magenetic resonance (NMR), and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. It then compares the results of studies of lignin in situ with studies of isolated lignins. Predicting reactivity The authors discuss polymer properties related to thermal stability and molecular motion of lignin in the solid state. They describe applications of electronic structure calculations to the chemistry of lignin, and they explore lignin reactions that occur during the chemical pulping of wood by soda, kraft, AQ, and polysulfide processes. Chemistry associated with industrial processes The book describes chemical pulp bleaching, oxidative and reductive lignin-retaining bleaching, and lignin biodegradation. It also examines the application of microorganisms and the enzymes they produce in the manufacturing of chemical and mechanical pulp. The book closes with chapters on photodegradation and chromophore formation and the pharmacological properties of lignans. Highlighting significant developments on selected topics, this essential reference for those in industry and academia is designed to fuel further research and discovery in this specialized area, especially in the emerging field of biorefining.