Lignin and Lignans as Renewable Raw Materials

Author: Calvo-flores
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118597869
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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As naturally occurring and abundant sources of non–fossil carbon, lignin and lignans offer exciting possibilities as a source of commercially valuable products, moving away from petrochemical–based feedstocks in favour of renewable raw materials. Lignin can be used directly in fields such as agriculture, livestock, soil rehabilitation, bioremediation and the polymer industry, or it can be chemically modified for the fabrication of specialty and high–value chemicals such as resins, adhesives, fuels and greases. Lignin and Lignans as Renewable Raw Materials presents a multidisciplinary overview of the state–of–the–art and future prospects of lignin and lignans. The book discusses the origin, structure, function and applications of both types of compounds, describing the main resources and values of these products as carbon raw materials. Topics covered include: Structure and physicochemical properties Lignin detection methods Biosynthesis of lignin Isolation methods Characterization and modification of lignins Applications of modified and unmodified lignins Lignans: structure, chemical and biological properties Future perspectives This book is a comprehensive resource for researchers, scientists and engineers in academia and industry working on new possibilities for the application of renewable raw materials. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit

Green Biocomposites

Author: Mohammad Jawaid
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319466100
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book addresses different aspects of green biocomposite manufacture from natural fibres and bioplastics, including the manufacturing procedures and the physical, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of green biocomposites. Featuring illustrations and tables that maximize reader insights into the current research on biocomposites, it emphasises the role of green technology in the manufacture of biocomposites and analysis of properties of biocomposites for different applications. It is a valuable resource for researchers and scientists in industry wanting to understand the need for biocomposites in the development of green, biodegradable and sustainable products for different applications.

Fuels Chemicals and Materials from the Oceans and Aquatic Sources

Author: Francesca M. Kerton
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119117178
Format: PDF
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Fuels, Chemicals and Materials from the Oceans and Aquatic Sources provides a holistic view of fuels, chemicals and materials from renewable sources in the oceans and other aquatic media. It presents established and recent results regarding the use of water-based biomass, both plants and animals,for value-added applications beyond food. The book begins with an introductory chapter which provides an overview of ocean and aquatic sources for the production of chemicals and materials. Subsequent chapters focus on the use of various ocean bioresources and feedstocks, including microalgae, macroalgae, and waste from aquaculture and fishing industries, including fish oils, crustacean and mollusc shells. Fuels, Chemicals and Materials from the Oceans and Aquatic Sources serves as a valuable reference for academic and industrial professionals working on the production of chemicals, materials and fuels from renewable feedstocks. It will also prove useful for researchers in the fields of green and sustainable chemistry, marine sciences and biotechnology. Topics covered include: • Production and conversion of green macroalgae • Marine macroalgal biomass as an energy feedstock • Microalgae bioproduction • Bioproduction and utilization of chitin and chitosan • Applications of mollusc shells • Crude fish oil as a potential fuel

Sustainability Assessment of Renewables Based Products

Author: Jo Dewulf
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118933923
Format: PDF, Docs
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Over the past decade, renewables-based technology and sustainability assessment methods have grown tremendously. Renewable energy and products have a significant role in the market today, and the same time sustainability assessment methods have advanced, with a growing standardization of environmental sustainability metrics and consideration of social issues as part of the assessment. Sustainability Assessment of Renewables-Based Products: Methods and Case Studies is an extensive update and sequel to the 2006 title Renewables-Based Technology: Sustainability Assessment. It discusses the impressive evolution and role renewables have taken in our modern society, highlighting the importance of sustainability principles in the design phase of renewable-based technologies, and presenting a wide range of sustainability assessment methods suitable for renewables-based technologies, together with case studies to demonstrate their applications. This book is a valuable resource for academics, businesses and policy makers who are active in contributing to more sustainable production and consumption. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit Topics covered include: The growing role of renewables in our society Sustainability in the design phase of products and processes Principles of sustainability assessment Land use analysis Water use analysis Material and energy flow analysis Exergy and cumulative exergy analysisCarbon and environmental footprint methods Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), social Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) Case studies: renewable energy, bio-based chemicals and bio-based materials.

State of the Art in Biorefinery in Finland and the United States 2008

Author: Alan W. Rudie
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The U.S. Embassy in Finland and the Finnish Ministry of Employment and Economy jointly sponsored a U.S. Embassy Science Fellowship to survey biorefinery research and development (R&D) activities in Finland the the United States and to seek cooperatve research efforts between the two countries. The biorefinery effort in Finland started from concerns about global climate change and a need to comply with terms of the Kyoto agreement on greenhouse gas emissions. The biorefinery program in the United States started from concerns about the rising cost of crude oil and a desire to reduce dependence on foreighn oil for U.S. transportation fuels. Although different in original intent, the two country R&D programs have many similarities and offer numerous opportunities for collaborative efforts. The program in Finland is more focused on direct replacement of high-carbon fuels, such as coal and peat, and gasification and gas reforming as a path toward transportation fuels. Chemical and biochemical research on biorefinery include production of ethanol as a transportation fuel but is more focused on specialty chemicals and use of biomass chemical fractions in films and plastics. The U.S. focus is primarily on transportation fuels, with about equal efforts on gasification and Fischer-Tropsch reforming, and cellulose hydrolysis with formation of ethanol. This difference in emphasis is partially dictated by difference in raw materials. About two-thirds of the biomass available in the United States is dedicated annual crops and unused stalks and leaves of cereal grain agriculture. The bulk of the biomass available in Finland is thinnings and logging slash from softwood tree species. Agricultural residuals are more readily hydrolyzed than softwoods and, because of higher ash content, more difficult to handle in gasification and direct combustion. The difference in program emphsis between the countries is largely a response to different climate and geographic conditions in Finland and the United States.