**Author**: Jerry R. Shipman

**Publisher:** Research & Education Assoc.

**ISBN:** 073866541X

**Format:** PDF

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Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies. Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of algebra and trigonometry currently available, with hundreds of algebra and trigonometry problems that cover everything from algebraic laws and absolute values to quadratic equations and analytic geometry. Each problem is clearly solved with step-by-step detailed solutions. DETAILS - The PROBLEM SOLVERS are unique - the ultimate in study guides. - They are ideal for helping students cope with the toughest subjects. - They greatly simplify study and learning tasks. - They enable students to come to grips with difficult problems by showing them the way, step-by-step, toward solving problems. As a result, they save hours of frustration and time spent on groping for answers and understanding. - They cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced in each subject. - They work exceptionally well with any text in its field. - PROBLEM SOLVERS are available in 41 subjects. - Each PROBLEM SOLVER is prepared by supremely knowledgeable experts. - Most are over 1000 pages. - PROBLEM SOLVERS are not meant to be read cover to cover. They offer whatever may be needed at a given time. An excellent index helps to locate specific problems rapidly. - Educators consider the PROBLEM SOLVERS the most effective and valuable study aids; students describe them as "fantastic" - the best books on the market. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Chapter 1: Fundamental Algebraic Laws and Operations Chapter 2: Least Common Multiple / Greatest Common Divisor Chapter 3: Sets and Subsets Chapter 4: Absolute Values Chapter 5: Operations with Fractions Chapter 6: Base, Exponent, Power Chapter 7: Roots and Radicals Simplification and Evaluation of Roots Rationalizing the Denominator Operations with Radicals Chapter 8: Algebraic Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division Chapter 9: Functions and Relations Chapter 10: Solving Linear Equations Unknown in Numerator Unknown in Numerator and/or Denominator Unknown Under Radical Sign Chapter 11: Properties of Straight Lines Slopes, Intercepts, and Points of Given Lines Finding Equations of Lines Graphing Techniques Chapter 12: Linear Inequalities Solving Inequalities and Graphing Inequalities with Two Variables Inequalities Combined with Absolute Values Chapter 13: Systems of Linear Equations and Inequalities Solving Equations in Two Variables and Graphing Solving Equations in Three Variables Solving Systems of Inequalities and Graphing Chapter 14: Determinants and Matrices Determinants of the Second Order Determinants and Matrices of Third and Higher Order Applications Chapter 15: Factoring Expressions and Functions Nonfractional Fractional Chapter 16: Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring Equations without Radicals Equations with Radicals Solving by Completing the Square Chapter 17: Solutions by Quadratic Formula Coefficients with Integers, Fractions, Radicals, and Variables Imaginary Roots Interrelationships of Roots: Sums; Products Determining the Character of Roots Chapter 18: Solving Quadratic Inequalities Chapter 19: Graphing Quadratic Equations / Conics and Inequalities Parabolas Circles, Ellipses, and Hyberbolas Inequalities Chapter 20: Systems of Quadratic Equations Quadratic/Linear Combinations Quadratic/Quadratic (Conic) Combinations Multivariable Combinations Chapter 21: Equations and Inequalities of Degree Greater than Two Degree 3 Degree 4 Chapter 22: Progressions and Sequences Arithmetic Geometric Harmonic Chapter 23: Mathematical Induction Chapter 24: Factorial Notation Chapter 25: Binomial Theorem / Expansion Chapter 26: Logarithms and Exponentials Expressions Interpolations Functions and Equations Chapter 27: Trigonometry Angles and Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Interpolations Trigonometric Identities Solving Triangles Chapter 28: Inverse Trigonometric Functions Chapter 29: Trigonometric Equations Finding Solutions to Equations Proving Trigonometric Identities Chapter 30: Polar Coordinates Chapter 31: Vectors and Complex Numbers Vectors Rectangular and Polar/Trigonometric Forms of Complex Numbers Operations with Complex Numbers Chapter 32: Analytic Geometry Points of Line Segments Distances Between Points and in Geometrical Configurations Circles, Arcs, and Sectors Space-Related Problems Chapter 33: Permutations Chapter 34: Combinations Chapter 35: Probability Chapter 36: Series Chapter 37: Decimal / Factional Conversions / Scientific Notation Chapter 38: Areas and Perimeters Chapter 39: Angles of Elevation, Depression and Azimuth Chapter 40: Motion Chapter 41: Mixtures / Fluid Flow Chapter 42: Numbers, Digits, Coins, and Consecutive Integers Chapter 43: Age and Work Chapter 44: Ratio, Proportions, and Variations Ratios and Proportions Direct Variation Inverse Variation Joint and Combined Direct-Inverse Variation Chapter 45: Costs Chapter 46: Interest and Investments Chapter 47: Problems in Space Index WHAT THIS BOOK IS FOR Students have generally found algebra and trigonometry difficult subjects to understand and learn. Despite the publication of hundreds of textbooks in this field, each one intended to provide an improvement over previous textbooks, students of algebra and trigonometry continue to remain perplexed as a result of numerous subject areas that must be remembered and correlated when solving problems. Various interpretations of algebra and trigonometry terms also contribute to the difficulties of mastering the subject. In a study of algebra and trigonometry, REA found the following basic reasons underlying the inherent difficulties of both math subjects: No systematic rules of analysis were ever developed to follow in a step-by-step manner to solve typically encountered problems. This results from numerous different conditions and principles involved in a problem that leads to many possible different solution methods. To prescribe a set of rules for each of the possible variations would involve an enormous number of additional steps, making this task more burdensome than solving the problem directly due to the expectation of much trial and error. Current textbooks normally explain a given principle in a few pages written by a mathematics professional who has insight into the subject matter not shared by others. These explanations are often written in an abstract manner that causes confusion as to the principle's use and application. Explanations then are often not sufficiently detailed or extensive enough to make the reader aware of the wide range of applications and different aspects of the principle being studied. The numerous possible variations of principles and their applications are usually not discussed, and it is left to the reader to discover this while doing exercises. Accordingly, the average student is expected to rediscover that which has long been established and practiced, but not always published or adequately explained. The examples typically following the explanation of a topic are too few in number and too simple to enable the student to obtain a thorough grasp of the involved principles. The explanations do not provide sufficient basis to solve problems that may be assigned for homework or given on examinations. Poorly solved examples such as these can be presented in abbreviated form which leaves out much explanatory material between steps, and as a result requires the reader to figure out the missing information. This leaves the reader with an impression that the problems and even the subject are hard to learn - completely the opposite of what an example is supposed to do. Poor examples are often worded in a confusing or obscure way. They might not state the nature of the problem or they present a solution, which appears to have no direct relation to the problem. These problems usually offer an overly general discussion - never revealing how or what is to be solved. Many examples do not include accompanying diagrams or graphs, denying the reader the exposure necessary for drawing good diagrams and graphs. Such practice only strengthens understanding by simplifying and organizing algebra and trigonometry processes. Students can learn the subject only by doing the exercises themselves and reviewing them in class, obtaining experience in applying the principles with their different ramifications. In doing the exercises by themselves, students find that they are required to devote considerable more time to algebra and trigonometry than to other subjects, because they are uncertain with regard to the selection and application of the theorems and principles involved. It is also often necessary for students to discover those "tricks" not revealed in their texts (or review books) that make it possible to solve problems easily. Students must usually resort to methods of trial and error to discover these "tricks," therefore finding out that they may sometimes spend several hours to solve a single problem. When reviewing the exercises in classrooms, instructors usually request students to take turns in writing solutions on the boards and explaining them to the class. Students often find it difficult to explain in a manner that holds the interest of the class, and enables the remaining students to follow the material written on the boards. The remaining students in the class are thus too occupied with copying the material off the boards to follow the professor's explanations. This book is intended to aid students in algebra and trigonometry overcome the difficulties described by supplying detailed illustrations of the solution methods that are usually not apparent to students. Solution methods are illustrated by problems that have been selected from those most often assigned for class work and given on examinations. The problems are arranged in order of complexity to enable students to learn and understand a particular topic by reviewing the problems in sequence. The problems are illustrated with detailed, step-by-step explanations, to save the students large amounts of time that is often needed to fill in the gaps that are usually found between steps of illustrations in textbooks or review/outline books. The staff of REA considers algebra and trigonometry subjects that are best learned by allowing students to view the methods of analysis and solution techniques. This learning approach is similar to that practiced in various scientific laboratories, particularly in the medical fields. In using this book, students may review and study the illustrated problems at their own pace; students are not limited to the time such problems receive in the classroom. When students want to look up a particular type of problem and solution, they can readily locate it in the book by referring to the index that has been extensively prepared. It is also possible to locate a particular type of problem by glancing at just the material within the boxed portions. Each problem is numbered and surrounded by a heavy black border for speedy identification.