Linguistic Diversity

Author: Daniel Nettle
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198238576
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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There are some 6,500 different languages in the world, belonging to around 250 distinct families and conforming to numerous grammatical types. This book explains why. Given that the biological mechanisms underlying language are the same in all normal human beings, would we not be a more successful species if we spoke one language? Daniel Nettle considers how this extraordinary and rich diversity arose, how it relates to the nature of language, cognition, and culture, and how it is linked with the main patterns of human geography and history. Human languages and language families are not distributed evenly: there are relatively few in Eurasia compared to the profusion found in Australasia, the Pacific, and the Americas. There is also a marked correlation between biodiversity and linguistic diversity. The author explains the processes by which this distribution evolved and changes still. To do so he returns to the earliest origins of language, reconstructing the processes of linguistic variation and diffusion that occurred when humans first filled the continents and, thousands of years later, turned to agriculture. He ends by examining the causes of linguistic mortality, and why the number of the world's languages may halve before 2100. Linguistic Diversity draws on work in anthropology, linguistics, geography, archaeology, and evolutionary science to provide a comprehensive account of the patterns of linguistic diversity. It is written in a clear, lively and accessible style, and will appeal broadly across the natural and human sciences, as well as to the informed general reader.

Linguistic Diversity and Social Justice

Author: Ingrid Piller
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199937257
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Understanding and addressing linguistic disadvantage must be a central facet of the social justice agenda of our time. This book explores the ways in which linguistic diversity mediates social justice in liberal democracies undergoing rapid change due to high levels of migration and economic globalization. Focusing on the linguistic dimensions of economic inequality, cultural domination and imparity of political participation, Linguistic Diversity and Social Justice employs a case-study approach to real-world instances of linguistic injustice. Linguistic diversity is a universal characteristic of human language but linguistic diversity is rarely neutral; rather it is accompanied by linguistic stratification and linguistic subordination. Domains critical to social justice include employment, education, and community participation. The book offers a detailed examination of the connection between linguistic diversity and inequality in these specific contexts within nation states that are organized as liberal democracies. Inequalities exist not only between individuals and groups within a state but also between states. Therefore, the book also explores the role of linguistic diversity in global injustice with a particular focus on the spread of English as a global language. While much of the analysis in this book focuses on language as a means of exclusion, discrimination and disadvantage, the concluding chapter asks what the content of linguistic justice might be.

The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis

Author: Bernd Heine
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199677077
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This handbook compares the main analytic frameworks and methods of contemporary linguistics. It offers a unique overview of linguistic theory, revealing the common concerns of competing approaches. By showing their current and potential applications it provides the means by which linguists and others can judge what are the most useful models for the task in hand. Distinguished scholars from all over the world explain the rationale and aims of over thirty explanatory approaches to the description, analysis, and understanding of language. Each chapter considers the main goals of the model; the relation it proposes from between lexicon, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and phonology; the way it defines the interactions between cognition and grammar; what it counts as evidence; and how it explains linguistic change and structure. The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis offers an indispensable guide for everyone researching any aspect of language including those in linguistics, comparative philology, cognitive science, developmental philology, cognitive science, developmental psychology, computational science, and artificial intelligence. This second edition has been updated to include seven new chapters looking at linguistic units in language acquisition, conversation analysis, neurolinguistics, experimental phonetics, phonological analysis, experimental semantics, and distributional typology.

The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics

Author: Robert B. Kaplan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195384253
Format: PDF
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The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics contains forty original chapters on a broad range of topics in applied linguistics by a diverse group of contributors. Its goal is to provide a comprehensive survey of the current state of the field, the many connections among its varioussub-disciplines, and the likely directions of its future development. The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics addresses a broad audience: applied linguists; educators and other scholars working in language acquisition, language learning, language planning, teaching, and testing; and linguistsconcerned with applications of their work. Early applied linguistics was predominantly associated with language-teaching. While this relationship continues, the field has long since diversified, becoming increasingly inter-related and multi-disciplinary. The volume addresses the diversity of questions facing applied linguists today: What isthe place of applied linguistics in the architecture of the university? Where does applied linguistics fit into the sociology of knowledge? What are the questions that applied linguistics ought to be addressing? What are the dominant paradigms guiding research in the field? What kinds of problemscan be solved through the mediation of applied linguistics? What aspects of linguistics can be empirically applied to language-based problems, and what spaces resist such application? What will new students of applied linguistics need to know in the coming years? Systematically encompassing the major areas of applied linguistics-and drawing from a wide range of disciplines such as education, language policy, bi- and multi-lingualism, literacy, language and gender, psycholinguistics/cognition, language and computers, discourse analysis, language andconcordinances, ecology of language, pragmatics, translation, psycholinguistics and cognition, and many other fields-the editors and contributors to The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics provide a panoramic and comprehensive look at this complex and vigorous field. This second edition includes three new chapters, and the remaining chapters have been thoroughly revised and updated to give a clear picture of the current state of applied linguistics.

Linguistics Today

Author: P. G. J. van Sterkenburg
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027232237
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Every five years the Permanent International Committee of Linguists (CIPL) organises a world congress for linguists. And every five years the Committee faces the challenge of presenting a programme at the highest possible level. The CIPL Executive Committee decided for the Congress planned for 2003 in Prague to focus on four major topics which play an important role in today s linguistic debate: 1. Typology, 2. Endangered Languages, 3. Methodology and Linguistics (including fieldwork) and 4. Language and the mind. Leading experts have introduced the four themes in their plenary lectures in the course of the congress, which served as a basis for the articles presented in the current volume. This book should be a welcome tool for all linguists wishing to find their way quickly in current developments. A CD-Rom containing the full proceedings of the Prague Congress is included.

Languages A Very Short Introduction

Author: Stephen R. Anderson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199590591
Format: PDF, Kindle
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How many languages are there? Are new languages still being discovered? Why are so many languages disappearing? In this Very Short Introduction, eminent linguist Stephen Anderson addresses such questions as he illuminates the science behind languages. Considering a wide range of different languages and linguistic examples, Anderson provides the basic facts about the world's major families of spoken languages and their distribution around the globe. He explores the basis for linguistic classification and raises questions about how we identify a language. Considering signed languages as well as spoken, Anderson also examines the wider social issues of losing languages, and their impact on vanishing cultures and peoples.

Trask s Historical Linguistics

Author: Robert McColl Millar
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317541766
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Trask’s Historical Linguistics, Third Edition, is an accessible introduction to historical linguistics – the study of language change over time. This engaging book is illustrated with language examples from all six continents, and covers the fundamental concepts of language change, methods for historical linguistics, linguistic reconstruction, sociolinguistic aspects of language change, language contact, the birth and death of languages, language and prehistory and the issue of very remote relations. This third edition of the renowned Trask’s Historical Linguistics is fully revised and updated and covers the most recent developments in historical linguistics, including: more detail on morphological change including cutting-edge discussions of iconization coverage of recent developments in sociolinguistic explanations of variation and change new case studies focusing on Germanic languages and American and New Zealand English, and updated exercises covering each of the topics within the book a brand new companion website featuring material for both professors and students, including discussion questions and further exercises as well as commentaries on the exercises within the book. Trask’s Historical Linguistics is essential reading for all students of language, linguistics and related disciplines. The accompanying website can be found at www.routledge.com/cw/trask

The Oxford Handbook of Language and Law

Author: Lawrence Solan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199572120
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book provides a state-of-the-art account of past and current research in the interface between linguistics and law. It outlines the range of legal areas in which linguistics plays an increasing role and describes the tools and approaches used by linguists and lawyers in this vibrant new field. Through a combination of overview chapters, case studies, and theoretical descriptions, the volume addresses areas such as the history and structure of legal languages, its meaning and interpretation, multilingualism and language rights, courtroom discourse, forensic identification, intellectual property and linguistics, and legal translation and interpretation. Encyclopedic in scope, the handbook includes chapters written by experts from every continent who are familiar with linguistic issues that arise in diverse legal systems, including both civil and common law jurisdictions, mixed systems like that of China, and the emerging law of the European Union.

The Handbook of Historical Sociolinguistics

Author: Juan Manuel Hernández-Campoy
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111825726X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Written by an international team of leading scholars, this groundbreaking reference work explores the nature of language change and diffusion, and paves the way for future research in this rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field. Features 35 newly-written essays from internationally acclaimed experts that reflect the growth and vitality of the burgeoning area of historical sociolinguistics Examines how sociolinguistic theoretical models, methods, findings, and expertise can be used to reconstruct a language's past in order to explain linguistic changes and developments Bridges the gap between the past and the present in linguistic studies Structured thematically into sections exploring: origins and theoretical assumptions; methods for the sociolinguistic study of the history of languages; linguistic and extra-linguistic variables; historical dialectology, language contact and diffusion; and attitudes to language