Linking Expertise and Naturalistic Decision Making

Author: Eduardo Salas
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135659915
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book contains selected papers presented at the 1998 conference on Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM). The objectives of the conference were to: *make American researchers more aware of NDM research being conducted abroad, particularly in Europe; *connect NDM research with work in management and industry, to stretch beyond the military and paramilitary focus; and *formulate a more explicit connection between NDM and expertise. These objectives are reflected in the chapters of this volume.

Accelerated Expertise

Author: Robert R. Hoffman
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135083231
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Speed in acquiring the knowledge and skills to perform tasks is crucial. Yet, it still ordinarily takes many years to achieve high proficiency in countless jobs and professions, in government, business, industry, and throughout the private sector. There would be great advantages if regimens of training could be established that could accelerate the achievement of high levels of proficiency. This book discusses the construct of ‘accelerated learning.’ It includes a review of the research literature on learning acquisition and retention, focus on establishing what works, and why. This includes several demonstrations of accelerated learning, with specific ideas, plans and roadmaps for doing so. The impetus for the book was a tasking from the Defense Science and Technology Advisory Group, which is the top level Science and Technology policy-making panel in the Department of Defense. However, the book uses both military and non-military exemplar case studies. It is likely that methods for acceleration will leverage technologies and capabilities including virtual training, cross-training, training across strategic and tactical levels, and training for resilience and adaptivity. This volume provides a wealth of information and guidance for those interested in the concept or phenomenon of "accelerating learning"— in education, training, psychology, academia in general, government, military, or industry.

Informed by Knowledge

Author: Kathleen L. Mosier
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136945105
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The focus of this book is on how experts adapt to complexity, synthesize and interpret information in context, and transform or "fuse" disparate items of information into coherent knowledge. The chapters examine these processes across experts (e.g. global leaders, individuals in extreme environments, managers, police officers, pilots, commanders, doctors, inventors), across contexts (e.g. space and space analogs, corporate organizations, command and control, crisis and crowd management, air traffic control, the operating room, product development), and for both individual and team performance. Successful information integration is a key factor in the success of diverse endeavors, including team attempts to climb Mt. Everest, crowd control in the Middle East, and remote drilling operations. This volume is divided into four sections, each with a specific focus on an area of expert performance, resulting in a text that covers a wide range of useful information. These sections present well-researched discussions, such as: the management of complex situations in various fields and decision contexts; technological and training approaches to facilitate knowledge management by individual experts and expert teams; new or neglected perspectives in expert decision making; and the importance of ‘modeling’ expert performance through techniques and frameworks such as Cognitive Task Analysis, computational architectures based on the notion of causal belief mapping such as ‘Convince Me,’ or the data/frame model of sensemaking. The volume provides essential reading for researchers and practitioners of Naturalistic Decision Making and those who study Expertise; Organizational and Cognitive Psychologists; and researchers and students in Business and Engineering.

Expertise Out of Context

Author: Robert R. Hoffman
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 0805855092
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Researchers have revealed that real expertise, while applied to well-defined tasks with highly circumscribed contexts, often stretches beyond its routine boundaries. For example, a medical doctor may be called upon to diagnose a rare disease or perform emergency surgery outside his or her area of specialization because other experts are not available. Moreover, in some cases, the context for expertise is in a constant state of flux, such that no one case is identical. Expertise Out of Context is a culmination of some of the most insightful studies conducted by researchers in the fields of cognitive systems engineering and naturalistic decision making in the effort to better understand expertise and its development. Born out of the Sixth International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, a conference that gathers researchers who study cognition, perception, and reasoning outside of the traditional laboratory, this book is organized in five parts, the first of which provides an overview of the topic and presents varied perspectives. Consequent sections cover how to make sense of things, tools for thinking out of context, how to cope with uncertainty in a changing workplace, and teams operating out of context. As researchers in naturalistic decision making have investigated such areas as the knowledge and decision-making skills of expert firefighters, critical care nurses, military commanders, and aircraft pilots, this volume is of importance to an expansive audience, including individuals in business, government, industry, and society at large.

Handbook of applied cognition

Author: Francis Thomas Durso
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Cognitive psychology is the basis of many applications in almost every area of technology, business, industry, and education. This book provides workers in applied arenas with presentations of research aimed directly at the problems and issues that confront them. It will cover key areas including business and industry, computers and technology, education and information, and health and law.

Sports Coaching E Book

Author: John Lyle
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1455725226
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Sports Coaching: Professionalisation and Practice is a comprehensive evidence-based textbook of sports coaching theory and practice. The book is edited by leading academics in sports coaching studies and authored by a world-renowned team of experts in sports coaching research. It deals with all aspects of coaching behaviour and practice, including coaches’ decision making, coaching pedagogy, and the development of expertise. Each of the chapters provides an up-to-date position statement on coaching themes, and makes explicit reference to the professionalisation of coaching. Written in an accessible style, and identifying critical ideas and issues, the book will complement and challenge both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching programmes, and will be an invaluable source of ideas for researchers and academics. Multicontributed chapters follow uniform structure to increase clarity and accessiblity of text 'Snapshots' of critical ideas and issues presented as models or diagrams to facilitate students' understanding Case examples and scenarios illustrate key concepts in each chapter Latest research and current literature summarised for each thematic topic.

Decision Making Under Stress

Author: Rhona H. Flin
Publisher: Gower Technical
ISBN:
Format: PDF
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This is a state-of-the-art review of psychological theory, research and practice on decision making in high pressure and emergency situations. The book focuses on the experienced decision makers who deal with such risks, principally on flight decks, at c

Managing crises

Author: Uriel Rosenthal
Publisher: Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Docs
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This textbook considers the phenomenon of crises from a new perspective; one that bridges the conventional social science view with the ever-changing nature of crises in modern society. The textbook is divided into five sections. The first section introduces the perspective taken in the textbook and offers an understanding of who crises means. The second section discusses how crises develop and escalate. One chapter in this section offers case studies of a number of Los Angeles riots that have taken place since the 1960's, including the riot sparked by the verdict of the Rodney King trial. The third section provides discussions on the decision-making, leadership, and coordination that occur when responding to any particular crisis. Section four reviews the politicization of crisis, as well as the traumas that accompany any crisis. The fifth section details the unintended consequences of modernization and how this will shape crises of the future.

Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter Terrorism

Author: Robert L. Popp
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
ISBN: 9780471776154
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberties. Topics covered include: Counter-terrorism modeling Quantitative and computational social science Signal processing and information management techniques Semantic Web and knowledge management technologies Information and intelligence sharing technologies Text/data processing and language translation technologies Social network analysis Legal standards for data mining Potential structures for enabling policies Technical system design to support policy Countering terrorism in today's world requires innovative technologies and corresponding creative policies; the two cannot be practically and realistically addressed separately. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism offers a comprehensive examination of both areas, serving as an essential resource for students, practitioners, researchers, developers, and decision-makers.