Livelihood Security in Northwestern Himalaya

Author: R.B. Singh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business
ISBN: 4431548688
Format: PDF
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This book identifies and analyzes livelihood impacts of recent environmental and socio-economic changes in urban and rural settings of the mountainous state of Himachal Pradesh, north western Himalaya, India. The findings of the research deal with the broader objectives of the changing patterns of agricultural production with special reference to diversification, as well as forest-based livelihood outcomes, Clean Development Mechanism forest project activities, the roles of different ethnic groups and non-governmental organizations and the benefits and shortcomings of tourism as a livelihood source. These tasks are studied by using an exploratory approach, with participant observation, interviews through random and cluster sampling among villagers, local land users and officials, as well as with land cover interpretation and secondary statistical data. This book is relevant for educational use together with policy input on the issues exploring livelihood security in a rapidly growing developing country.

Geomorphology and Society

Author: Michael E Meadows
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431560009
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book deals with the relationship between geomorphology and society. This topic has had rather scant treatment in the literature except to some extent under the label “applied geomorphology”. In this text the authors aim to bring together conceptual issues and case studies of how geomorphology influences society and, indeed, how society is in turn influenced by geomorphology. In an age in which the influence of human activities on global environments has become so paramount that it is increasingly common to refer to it geologically as the “anthropocene”, the book aims to reflect on the geomorphological significance of widespread and diverse forms of human impact in a range of environmental settings.

Himalayan Glaciers

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309261015
Format: PDF, Docs
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Scientific evidence shows that most glaciers in South Asia's Hindu Kush Himalayan region are retreating, but the consequences for the region's water supply are unclear, this report finds. The Hindu Kush Himalayan region is the location of several of Asia's great river systems, which provide water for drinking, irrigation, and other uses for about 1.5 billion people. Recent studies show that at lower elevations, glacial retreat is unlikely to cause significant changes in water availability over the next several decades, but other factors, including groundwater depletion and increasing human water use, could have a greater impact. Higher elevation areas could experience altered water flow in some river basins if current rates of glacial retreat continue, but shifts in the location, intensity, and variability of rain and snow due to climate change will likely have a greater impact on regional water supplies. Himalayan Glaciers: Climate Change, Water Resources, and Water Security makes recommendations and sets guidelines for the future of climate change and water security in the Himalayan Region. This report emphasizes that social changes, such as changing patterns of water use and water management decisions, are likely to have at least as much of an impact on water demand as environmental factors do on water supply. Water scarcity will likely affect the rural and urban poor most severely, as these groups have the least capacity to move to new locations as needed. It is predicted that the region will become increasingly urbanized as cities expand to absorb migrants in search of economic opportunities. As living standards and populations rise, water use will likely increase-for example, as more people have diets rich in meat, more water will be needed for agricultural use. The effects of future climate change could further exacerbate water stress. Himalayan Glaciers: Climate Change, Water Resources, and Water Security explains that changes in the availability of water resources could play an increasing role in political tensions, especially if existing water management institutions do not better account for the social, economic, and ecological complexities of the region. To effectively respond to the effects of climate change, water management systems will need to take into account the social, economic, and ecological complexities of the region. This means it will be important to expand research and monitoring programs to gather more detailed, consistent, and accurate data on demographics, water supply, demand, and scarcity.

Landscape Ecology and Water Management

Author: Mehtab Singh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431548718
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The over-exploitation of important earth resources such as land and water has led to a number of environment-related problems the world over. At the same time, land-use change caused by various human activities has led to extinction of many plant and animal habitats and species. In this context, the relevance of biodiversity for human survival is becoming a major international political issue as scientific evidence builds on the global health implications of biodiversity loss. These issues are closely linked with the issue of climate change, as many of the health risks due to climate change are associated with rapid degradation of biodiversity. This present work focuses on holistic natural resource-based spatio-temporal planning, development and management and considers them as essential to save the degraded ecosystem for sustainable resource management. Contributions are compiled in two volumes: 1. Climate Change and Biodiversity and 2. Landscape Ecology and Water Management. Geoinformatics along with its tools such as remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been used in assessing the results of various environmental problems both physical and social. These volumes will be useful for geographers, geoscientists, hydrologists, landscape ecologists, environmentalists, engineers, planners and policy makers.

Agroforestry Research Developments

Author: Jagdish Chander Dagar
Publisher: Nova Science Publishers
ISBN: 9781634850469
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Today, agroforestry ranks high among the significant land-management initiatives that have undertaken the world over the past few decades. Indeed, it is now recognized as an important approach to ensuring food security and rebuilding resilient rural environments. Recent studies have shown that more than one billion hectares of agricultural land have more than 10% tree cover. Of this, 160 million hectares have more than 50% tree cover. Agricultural ecosystems can be further improved through agroforestry to ensure environmental restoration, greater farm productivity, and realization of ecological services, including climate change mitigation and adaptation for improved rural livelihood. Now, agroforestry is considered synonymous to climate smart agriculture and a remedy for many modern environmental challenges, and acts as a mitigating process for climate change. Consequently, the knowledge base of agroforestry is being expanded at a rapid rate as illustrated by the increasing number and quality of scientific publications of various forms on different aspects of agroforestry. Making full and efficient use of this upsurge in scientific agroforestry is both a challenge and an opportunity to the scientific community, particularly in the scenario of climate change. In order to help prepare themselves better for facing the challenges and seizing the opportunity, agroforestry scientists need access to synthesized information on multi-dimensional aspects of scientific agroforestry. It is believed that widespread scaling-up of agroforestry innovations during the next decade will greatly facilitate the success of global commitments and conventions such as the UN Millennium Development Goals, Convention on Biological Diversity, Framework on Climate Change, and the Convention to Combat Desertification. This book will be useful for engaging more stakeholders, including students, foresters, farmers, local communities, indigenous people, civil society institutions, the media, private sectors, scientists (working in the fields of Agroforestry, Forestry, Life Sciences, Animal Husbandry & Dairy, Social Science, Food Science and Environmental Sciences), policymakers, leaders, and the public.

Environmental Sustainability from the Himalayas to the Oceans

Author: Shikui Dong
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319440373
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The book is written in the backdrop of the environmental impacts of and future requirements from the natural environment for rapid economic growth that has characterized recent economic history of China and India, especially over the past few decades. The environmental impacts of such rapid economic changes have been, more frequently than otherwise, degrading in character. Environmental impacts of economic activities create degraded natural ecosystems by over utilization of nature’s provisioning ecosystem services (from Himalaya to the Ocean), as well, by the use of the natural environment as sink for dumping of unmarketable products or unused inputs of economic activities. Such processes affect wide range of ecosystem processes on which the natural environment including human population depend on. Critical perspectives cast by various chapters in this book draw attention to the various ways in which space and power interact to produce diverse geographies of sustainability in a globalizing world. They also address the questions such as who decides what kind of a spatial arrangement of political power is needed for sustaining the environment. Who stands to gain (or lose) what, when, where, and why from certain geographical areas being demarcated as ecologically unique, fragile and vulnerable environments? Whose needs and values are being catered to by a given ecosystem service? What is the scope for critical inquiry into the ways in which the environment is imagined, represented and resisted in both geopolitical struggles and everyday life? The book provides insights to both academics from diverse disciplines and policy makers, civil society actors interested in mutual exchange of knowledge between China and India.

Climate Change and Biodiversity

Author: Mehtab Singh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431548386
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The over-exploitation of important earth resources such as land and water has led to a number of environment-related problems the world over. At the same time, land-use change caused by various human activities has led to extinction of many plant and animal habitats and species. In this context, the relevance of biodiversity for human survival is becoming a major international political issue as scientific evidence builds on the global health implications of biodiversity loss. These issues are closely linked with the issue of climate change, as many of the health risks due to climate change are associated with rapid degradation of biodiversity. This present work focuses on holistic natural resource-based spatio-temporal planning, development, and management and considers them as essential to save the degraded ecosystem for sustainable resource management. Contributions are compiled in two volumes: 1. Climate Change and Biodiversity and 2. Landscape Ecology and Water Management. Geoinformatics along with its tools such as remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) have been used in assessing the results of various environmental problems both physical and social. The volume will be useful for geographers, geoscientists, hydrologists, landscape ecologists, environmentalists, engineers, planners and policy makers.

Plant and Vegetation Mapping

Author: Franco Pedrotti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642302351
Format: PDF
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The book is concerned principally with geobotanical mapping. Geobotany is a broad science that deals with the study of species and of vegetation communities in relation to the environment; it includes other, perhaps more familiar sciences, such as plant geography, plant ecology, and chorology, and phytosociology (plant sociology). Geobotanical cartography is a field of thematic cartography that deals with the interpretation and representation, in the form of maps, of those spatial and temporal phenomena that pertain to flora, vegetation, vegetated landscapes, vegetation zones, and phytogeographical units. The production of a geobotanical map represents the last stage in a cognitive process that begins with observations in the field and continues with the collection of sample data, interpretation of the phenomena observed, and their appropriate cartographic representation; geobotanical cartography is closely tied to the concepts and scope of geobotany in general

Integrated Studies of Social and Natural Environmental Transition in Laos

Author: Satoshi Yokoyama
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431549560
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book examines social and natural environmental changes in present-day Laos and presents a new research framework for environmental studies from an interdisciplinary point of view. In Laos, after the Lao version of perestroika, Chintanakaan Mai, in 1986, for better or worse, rural development and urbanization have progressed, and people’s livelihoods are about to change significantly. Compared to those of the neighboring countries of mainland Southeast Asia, however, many traditional livelihoods such as region-specific/ethnic-specific livelihood complexes, which combined traditional rice farming with a variety of subsistence activities, have been carried over into the present in Laos. The biggest challenge this book presents is to elucidate livelihood strategies of people who cope successfully with both social and environmental changes and to illustrate how to maintain this rich social and natural environment of Laos in the future. The book includes chapters on social, cultural, and natural concerns and on ethnicity, urbanization, and regional development in Laos. All chapters are based on original data from field surveys. These data will greatly contribute not only to local studies in Laos but also to environmental studies in developing countries.

El desarrollo sostenible una gu a sobre nuestro futuro com n

Author: World Commission on Environment and Development
Publisher: IICA Biblioteca Venezuela
ISBN: 9780192820808
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Discusses population growth, food production, energy, industry, and urban development, and suggests ways to promote economic growth while protecting the environment.