Livelihoods and Learning

Author: Caroline Dyer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136188185
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Current paradigms of ‘development’ generally serve mobile pastoralist groups poorly: their visibility in policy processes is minimal, and their mobility is constructed by the powerful as a ‘problem’, rather than as a rational livelihood strategy. Increasingly damaged eco-systems, shrinking natural resources, globalisation and urbanisation all put pressure on pastoralist livelihoods. Such processes often worsen, rather than alleviate, poverty and socio-economic marginalisation among pastoralists, but they also precipitate engagement with forms of education that may improve their future livelihood security and social status, and enhance occupational diversification. Opening with a discussion of how the relationships between education, poverty and development have been conceived in dominant development discourses, this book reviews the disappointing international experience of education provision to mobile pastoralist groups. It highlights a lack of sufficient flexibility and relevance to changing livelihoods and, more fundamentally, education’s conceptual location within a sedentarist paradigm of development that is antagonistic to mobility as a legitimate livelihood strategy. These global themes are examined in India, where policy and practices of education inclusion for mobile, marginalised groups are critiqued. Empirically-based chapters drawing on ethnographic research, provide detailed insights into how the Rabaris of Kachchh – a pastoralist community in Gujarat, Western India – engage with education as a social and economic development strategy for both adults and children, and show how ethnographic and participatory research approaches can be used for policy advocacy for marginalised groups. Livelihoods and Learning highlights the complex, contested and often inconsistent role of education in development and the social construction of poverty, and calls for a critical reappraisal of the notion of ‘education’. The book will be key reading for postgraduates and academics in education, development studies, international and comparative education and research methodology, as well as policy-makers, ministries and related agencies with responsibility for education.

Educating Entrepreneurial Citizens

Author: Joan DeJaeghere
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1315535602
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Educating Entrepreneurial Citizens examines the multiple and contradictory purposes and effects of entrepreneurship education aimed at addressing youth unemployment and alleviating poverty in Tanzania. Governments in sub-Saharan Africa face increasing pressure to educate young people through secondary school, supposedly equipping them with knowledge and skills for employment and their future. At the same time, many youths do not complete their education and there are insufficient jobs to employ graduates. The development community sees entrepreneurship education as one viable solution to the double edged problem of inadequate education and few jobs. But while entrepreneurship education is aligned with a governing rationality of neoliberalism that requires individuals to create their own livelihoods without government social supports, the two NGO programs discussed in this book draw on a rights-based discourse that seeks to educate those not served by government schools, providing them with educational and social supports to be included in society. The chapters explore the tensions that occur when international organizations and NGOs draw on both neoliberal and liberal human rights discourses to address the problems of poverty, unemployment and poor quality education. Furthermore, when these neo/liberal perspectives meet local ideas of reciprocity and solidarity, they create friction and alter the programs and effects they have on youth. The book introduces the concept of entrepreneurial citizens—those who utilize their innovative skills and behaviors to claim both economic and social rights from which they had been previously excluded. The programs taught youth how to develop their own enterprises, to earn profits, and to save for their own futures; but youth used their education, skills and labor to provide for basic needs, to be included in society, and to support their and their families’ well-being. By showing the contradictory effects of entrepreneurship education programs, the book asks international agencies and governments to consider how they can go beyond technical approaches of creating enterprises and increasing income, and head toward approaches that consider the kinds of labor that young people and communities value for their wellbeing. This book will be of interest to scholars and practitioners of education and international development, youth studies, African Studies and entrepreneurship/social entrepreneurship education.

Gender Violence in Poverty Contexts

Author: Jenny Parkes
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113466544X
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book is concerned with understanding the complex ways in which gender violence and poverty impact on young people’s lives, and the potential for education to challenge violence. Although there has been a recent expansion of research on gender violence and schooling, the field of research that brings together thinking on gender violence, poverty and education is in its infancy. This book sets out to establish this new field by offering innovative research insights into the nature of violence affecting children and young people; the sources of violence, including the relationship with poverty and inequality; the effects of violence on young subjectivities; and the educational challenge of how to counter violence. Authors address three interrelated aims in their chapters: to identify theoretical and methodological framings for understanding the relationship between gender, violence, poverty and education to demonstrate how young people living in varying contexts of poverty in the Global South learn about, engage in, respond to and resist gender violence to investigate how institutions, including schools, families, communities, governments, international and non-governmental organisations and the media constrain or expand possibilities to challenge gender violence in the Global South. Describing a range of innovative research projects, the chapters display what scholarly work can offer to help meet the educational challenge, and to find ways to help young people and those around them to understand, resist and rupture the many faces of violence. Gender Violence in Poverty Contexts will appeal to an international audience of postgraduate students, academics and researchers in the fields of international and comparative education, gender and women’s studies, teacher education, poverty, development and conflict studies, African and Asian studies and related disciplines. It will also be of interest to professionals in NGOs and other organisations, and policy makers, keen to develop research-informed practice. Winner of the 2016 Jackie Kirk Outstanding Book Award.

The Poor Child

Author: Lucy Hopkins
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131780726X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Why are development discourses of the ‘poor child’ in need of radical revision? What are the theoretical and methodological challenges and possibilities for ethical understandings of childhoods and poverty? The ‘poor child’ at the centre of development activity is often measured against and reformed towards an idealised and globalised child subject. This book examines why such normative discourses of childhood are in need of radical revision and explores how development research and practice can work to ‘unsettle’ the global child. It engages the cultural politics of childhood – a politics of equality, identity and representation – as a methodological and theoretical orientation to rethink the relationships between education, development, and poverty in children’s lives. This book brings multiple disciplinary perspectives, including cultural studies, sociology, and film studies, into conversation with development studies and development education in order to provide new ways of approaching and conceptualising the ‘poor child’. The researchers draw on a range of methodological frames – such as poststructuralist discourse analysis, arts based research, ethnographic studies and textual analysis – to unpack the hidden assumptions about children within development discourses. Chapters in this book reveal the diverse ways in which the notion of childhood is understood and enacted in a range of national settings, including Kenya, India, Mexico and the United Kingdom. They explore the complex constitution of children’s lives through cultural, policy, and educational practices. The volume’s focus on children’s experiences and voices shows how children themselves are challenging the representation and material conditions of their lives. The ‘Poor Child’ will be of particular interest to postgraduate students and scholars working in the fields of childhood studies, international and comparative education, and development studies.

Education Provision to Nomadic Pastoralists

Author: Saverio Krätli
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781858643496
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Educationally, pastoralists appear to be a paradox. From the perspective of official education, they are a complete failure, scoring badly in terms of enrollment, achievement, attainment, and gender balance. However, pastoralists are far from being unskilled. Their daily lives require them to perform tasks involving high levels of individual and social specialization. A consideration of this paradox should be central to analyses of the continuous failure, with regard to nomads, of the universal project of education. Instead, education programs appear to oppose nomadic culture at all levels--from principles and goals to evaluation. As a universal project, education has had a very broad goal of the fulfillment of all individuals as human beings and a very narrow view of educational structure and content. With regard to education of nomads, this literature review suggests that such attitude should be reversed to a broader view and focused goals. Policies should expand the view from statistics and the classroom to education as a broad phenomenon. Education for nomads should be flexible, multifaceted, and focused enough to target specific structural problems such as social and economic marginalization, lack of political representation, or coping and interacting successfully with the challenges of globalization. Sections of this literature review cover the educational rationale (education as basic need and right, education for development and integration); practical problems and solutions (mobility, remoteness, poverty, sparse population, distance education, staff, motivation, language); cultural problems (conservatism, ignorance, child labor, cultural alienation, education of girls, parent choice, relevance); impact and outcomes of education; a Mongolia case study; and key issues for future policy. (Contains 194 references.) (TD)

Education Mobilities and Migration

Author: Madeleine Arnot
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317224167
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Within the context of increased global migration and mobility, education occupies a central role which is being transformed by new human movements and cultural diversity, flows, and networks. Studies under the umbrella terms of migration, mobility, and mobilities reveal the complexity of these concepts. The field of study ranges from global child mobility as a response to poverty, to the reconceptualising of notions of inclusion in relation to pastoralist lifestyles, to the ways in which new offshore institutions and transnational diasporas shape the educational experiences of students, families, and teachers. At the heart of this new research is a need to explore how identity, integration, and social stratification play a role in the story of global migration between and within the Global North and South. This volume focuses on three major themes: poverty, migration, social mobility and social reproduction; networks of migration within and across national education systems; and higher education and international student mobility, and the concerns and opportunities that go along with this mobility. The international group of researchers who have contributed to this book demonstrate how educational institutions are part of a common global project characterised by fluidity, how the social fabric of educational institutions responds to demographic diversity, and how new social differentiations occur as a result of human movement. By bringing together these contributions, a number of important theoretical and empirical methodological dimensions are identified that need more attention within the growing field of migration and education studies. This volume shows how mobilities and transnational interconnectedness create multiple interactions that tie our different educational projects together. This book was originally published as a special issue of Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education.

Education for rural people

Author: David Acker
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org
ISBN: 9789251062371
Format: PDF, Docs
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Nearly one out of six people of the current inhabitants of the world is suffering from hunger and illiteracy. This book was developed to assist policy makers dealing with rural poverty, food insecurity and education challenges confronting rural people. It seeks to address the correlation between education, training, empowerment and food security, mainly through a number of examples from all over the world. It is about strengthening the capacity of rural people to achieve food security. It identifies different dimensions of education and training that have proven useful, and covers formal education as well as non-formal education, literacy as well as skills training.

Pastoralism and Development in Africa

Author: Andy Catley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415540712
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Once again, the Horn of Africa has been in the headlines. And once again the news has been bad: drought, famine, conflict, hunger, suffering and death. The finger of blame has been pointed in numerous directions: to the changing climate, to environmental degradation, to overpopulation, to geopolitics and conflict, to aid agency failures, and more. But it is not all disaster and catastrophe. Many successful development efforts at 'the margins' often remain hidden, informal, sometimes illegal; and rarely in line with standard development prescriptions. If we shift our gaze from the capital cities to the regional centres and their hinterlands, then a very different perspective emerges. These are the places where pastoralists live. They have for centuries struggled with drought, conflict and famine. They are resourceful, entrepreneurial and innovative peoples. Yet they have been ignored and marginalised by the states that control their territory and the development agencies who are supposed to help them. This book argues that, while we should not ignore the profound difficulties of creating secure livelihoods in the Greater Horn of Africa, there is much to be learned from development successes, large and small. This book will be of great interest to students and scholars with an interest in development studies and human geography, with a particular emphasis on Africa. It will also appeal to development policy-makers and practitioners.