Livelihoods and Learning

Author: Caroline Dyer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136188185
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Current paradigms of ‘development’ generally serve mobile pastoralist groups poorly: their visibility in policy processes is minimal, and their mobility is constructed by the powerful as a ‘problem’, rather than as a rational livelihood strategy. Increasingly damaged eco-systems, shrinking natural resources, globalisation and urbanisation all put pressure on pastoralist livelihoods. Such processes often worsen, rather than alleviate, poverty and socio-economic marginalisation among pastoralists, but they also precipitate engagement with forms of education that may improve their future livelihood security and social status, and enhance occupational diversification. Opening with a discussion of how the relationships between education, poverty and development have been conceived in dominant development discourses, this book reviews the disappointing international experience of education provision to mobile pastoralist groups. It highlights a lack of sufficient flexibility and relevance to changing livelihoods and, more fundamentally, education’s conceptual location within a sedentarist paradigm of development that is antagonistic to mobility as a legitimate livelihood strategy. These global themes are examined in India, where policy and practices of education inclusion for mobile, marginalised groups are critiqued. Empirically-based chapters drawing on ethnographic research, provide detailed insights into how the Rabaris of Kachchh – a pastoralist community in Gujarat, Western India – engage with education as a social and economic development strategy for both adults and children, and show how ethnographic and participatory research approaches can be used for policy advocacy for marginalised groups. Livelihoods and Learning highlights the complex, contested and often inconsistent role of education in development and the social construction of poverty, and calls for a critical reappraisal of the notion of ‘education’. The book will be key reading for postgraduates and academics in education, development studies, international and comparative education and research methodology, as well as policy-makers, ministries and related agencies with responsibility for education.

Educating Entrepreneurial Citizens

Author: Joan DeJaeghere
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1315535602
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Educating Entrepreneurial Citizens examines the multiple and contradictory purposes and effects of entrepreneurship education aimed at addressing youth unemployment and alleviating poverty in Tanzania. Governments in sub-Saharan Africa face increasing pressure to educate young people through secondary school, supposedly equipping them with knowledge and skills for employment and their future. At the same time, many youths do not complete their education and there are insufficient jobs to employ graduates. The development community sees entrepreneurship education as one viable solution to the double edged problem of inadequate education and few jobs. But while entrepreneurship education is aligned with a governing rationality of neoliberalism that requires individuals to create their own livelihoods without government social supports, the two NGO programs discussed in this book draw on a rights-based discourse that seeks to educate those not served by government schools, providing them with educational and social supports to be included in society. The chapters explore the tensions that occur when international organizations and NGOs draw on both neoliberal and liberal human rights discourses to address the problems of poverty, unemployment and poor quality education. Furthermore, when these neo/liberal perspectives meet local ideas of reciprocity and solidarity, they create friction and alter the programs and effects they have on youth. The book introduces the concept of entrepreneurial citizens—those who utilize their innovative skills and behaviors to claim both economic and social rights from which they had been previously excluded. The programs taught youth how to develop their own enterprises, to earn profits, and to save for their own futures; but youth used their education, skills and labor to provide for basic needs, to be included in society, and to support their and their families’ well-being. By showing the contradictory effects of entrepreneurship education programs, the book asks international agencies and governments to consider how they can go beyond technical approaches of creating enterprises and increasing income, and head toward approaches that consider the kinds of labor that young people and communities value for their wellbeing. This book will be of interest to scholars and practitioners of education and international development, youth studies, African Studies and entrepreneurship/social entrepreneurship education.

Gender Violence in Poverty Contexts

Author: Jenny Parkes
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113466544X
Format: PDF
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This book is concerned with understanding the complex ways in which gender violence and poverty impact on young people’s lives, and the potential for education to challenge violence. Although there has been a recent expansion of research on gender violence and schooling, the field of research that brings together thinking on gender violence, poverty and education is in its infancy. This book sets out to establish this new field by offering innovative research insights into the nature of violence affecting children and young people; the sources of violence, including the relationship with poverty and inequality; the effects of violence on young subjectivities; and the educational challenge of how to counter violence. Authors address three interrelated aims in their chapters: to identify theoretical and methodological framings for understanding the relationship between gender, violence, poverty and education to demonstrate how young people living in varying contexts of poverty in the Global South learn about, engage in, respond to and resist gender violence to investigate how institutions, including schools, families, communities, governments, international and non-governmental organisations and the media constrain or expand possibilities to challenge gender violence in the Global South. Describing a range of innovative research projects, the chapters display what scholarly work can offer to help meet the educational challenge, and to find ways to help young people and those around them to understand, resist and rupture the many faces of violence. Gender Violence in Poverty Contexts will appeal to an international audience of postgraduate students, academics and researchers in the fields of international and comparative education, gender and women’s studies, teacher education, poverty, development and conflict studies, African and Asian studies and related disciplines. It will also be of interest to professionals in NGOs and other organisations, and policy makers, keen to develop research-informed practice. Winner of the 2016 Jackie Kirk Outstanding Book Award.

Education for rural people

Author: David Acker
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org
ISBN: 9789251062371
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Nearly one out of six people of the current inhabitants of the world is suffering from hunger and illiteracy. This book was developed to assist policy makers dealing with rural poverty, food insecurity and education challenges confronting rural people. It seeks to address the correlation between education, training, empowerment and food security, mainly through a number of examples from all over the world. It is about strengthening the capacity of rural people to achieve food security. It identifies different dimensions of education and training that have proven useful, and covers formal education as well as non-formal education, literacy as well as skills training.

Pastoralism and Development in Africa

Author: Andy Catley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415540712
Format: PDF, Docs
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Once again, the Horn of Africa has been in the headlines. And once again the news has been bad: drought, famine, conflict, hunger, suffering and death. The finger of blame has been pointed in numerous directions: to the changing climate, to environmental degradation, to overpopulation, to geopolitics and conflict, to aid agency failures, and more. But it is not all disaster and catastrophe. Many successful development efforts at 'the margins' often remain hidden, informal, sometimes illegal; and rarely in line with standard development prescriptions. If we shift our gaze from the capital cities to the regional centres and their hinterlands, then a very different perspective emerges. These are the places where pastoralists live. They have for centuries struggled with drought, conflict and famine. They are resourceful, entrepreneurial and innovative peoples. Yet they have been ignored and marginalised by the states that control their territory and the development agencies who are supposed to help them. This book argues that, while we should not ignore the profound difficulties of creating secure livelihoods in the Greater Horn of Africa, there is much to be learned from development successes, large and small. This book will be of great interest to students and scholars with an interest in development studies and human geography, with a particular emphasis on Africa. It will also appeal to development policy-makers and practitioners.

Beyond Access

Author: Sheila Aikman
Publisher: Oxfam
ISBN: 9780855985295
Format: PDF
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This book combines analysis of policy and empirically based studies on gender, education, and development.

Marginality

Author: Joachim von Braun
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400770618
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book takes a new approach on understanding causes of extreme poverty and promising actions to address it. Its focus is on marginality being a root cause of poverty and deprivation. “Marginality” is the position of people on the edge, preventing their access to resources, freedom of choices, and the development of capabilities. The book is research based with original empirical analyses at local, national, and local scales; book contributors are leaders in their fields and have backgrounds in different disciplines. An important message of the book is that economic and ecological approaches and institutional innovations need to be integrated to overcome marginality. The book will be a valuable source for development scholars and students, actors that design public policies, and for social innovators in the private sector and non-governmental organizations.​

Education Quality and Social Justice in the Global South

Author: Leon Tikly
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136730664
Format: PDF, Mobi
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How we understand education quality is inextricably linked with perspectives on social justice. Questions of inclusion, relevance and democracy in education are increasingly contested, most especially in the global South, and improving the quality of education, particularly for the most disadvantaged, has become a topic of fundamental concern for education policy makers, practitioners and the international development community. The reality experienced by many learners continues to be of inadequately prepared and poorly motivated teachers, struggling to deliver a rapidly changing curriculum without sufficient support, and often using outmoded teaching methods in over-crowded or dilapidated classrooms. Education Quality and Social Justice in the South includes contributions from leading scholars in the field of education and development. The text draws upon state of the art evidence from the five year EdQual research programme, which focuses upon raising achievement in low income countries, and demonstrates how systems of high quality universal education can be sustained. By exploring recent research initiatives to improve education quality, the importance of supporting local policy makers, educators and parents as agents of change, and students as active inquirers is highlighted, and the challenge of taking successful initiatives to scale is explained. The book is divided into three main parts: -Framing Education Quality -Planning and Policies for Quality -Implementing Quality in Schools Education Quality and Social Justice in the South argues that implementing a high quality of education using theories of social justice can inform the understanding of inclusion, relevance and democracy in education. The book should be essential reading for both students and researchers within the fields of international and comparative education, along with educational policy, poverty and development studies.