Machine Discovery

Author: Jan Zytkow
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401721246
Format: PDF, ePub
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Human and machine discovery are gradual problem-solving processes of searching large problem spaces for incompletely defined goal objects. Research on problem solving has usually focused on searching an `instance space' (empirical exploration) and a `hypothesis space' (generation of theories). In scientific discovery, searching must often extend to other spaces as well: spaces of possible problems, of new or improved scientific instruments, of new problem representations, of new concepts, and others. This book focuses especially on the processes for finding new problem representations and new concepts, which are relatively new domains for research on discovery. Scientific discovery has usually been studied as an activity of individual investigators, but these individuals are positioned in a larger social structure of science, being linked by the `blackboard' of open publication (as well as by direct collaboration). Even while an investigator is working alone, the process is strongly influenced by knowledge and skills stored in memory as a result of previous social interactions. In this sense, all research on discovery, including the investigations on individual processes discussed in this book, is social psychology, or even sociology.

Socratic Epistemology

Author: Jaakko Hintikka
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139465791
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Most current work in epistemology deals with the evaluation and justification of information already acquired. In this book, Jaakko Hintikka instead discusses the more important problem of how knowledge is acquired in the first place. His model of information-seeking is the old Socratic method of questioning, which has been generalized and brought up-to-date through the logical theory of questions and answers that he has developed. Hintikka also argues that philosophers' quest for a definition of knowledge is ill-conceived and that the entire notion of knowledge should be replaced by the concept of information. He offers an analysis of the different meanings of the concept of information and of their interrelations. The result is a new and illuminating approach to the field of epistemology.

Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems

Author: Efraim Turban
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780130894656
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Widely hailed for its contemporary, cutting-edge perspective, this comprehensive, reader-friendly text covers the latest decision support theories and practices used by managers and organizations. Current examples and cases are drawn from actual organizations and firms. Decision Making, Systems, Modeling, and Support. Data Warehousing, Access, Analysis, Mining, and Visualization. Modeling and Analysis. Decision Support System Development. Collaborative Computing Technologies: Group Support Systems. Enterprise Decision Support Systems. Knowledge Management. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems. Knowledge Acquisition and Validation. Knowledge Representation. Inference Techniques. Intelligent Systems Development. Neural Computing Applications, and Advanced Artificial Intelligent Systems and Applications. Intelligent Software Agents and Creativity. Implementing and Integrating Management Support Systems. Organizational and Societal Impacts of Management Support Systems. For managers interested in Decision Support Systems, Computerized Decision Making, and Management Support Systems.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
Format: PDF, Docs
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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

A Mathematical Theory of Design Foundations Algorithms and Applications

Author: D. Braha
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475728727
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Formal Design Theory (PDT) is a mathematical theory of design. The main goal of PDT is to develop a domain independent core model of the design process. The book focuses the reader's attention on the process by which ideas originate and are developed into workable products. In developing PDT, we have been striving toward what has been expressed by the distinguished scholar Simon (1969): that "the science of design is possible and some day we will be able to talk in terms of well-established theories and practices. " The book is divided into five interrelated parts. The conceptual approach is presented first (Part I); followed by the theoretical foundations of PDT (Part II), and from which the algorithmic and pragmatic implications are deduced (Part III). Finally, detailed case-studies illustrate the theory and the methods of the design process (Part IV), and additional practical considerations are evaluated (Part V). The generic nature of the concepts, theory and methods are validated by examples from a variety of disciplines. FDT explores issues such as: algebraic representation of design artifacts, idealized design process cycle, and computational analysis and measurement of design process complexity and quality. FDT's axioms convey the assumptions of the theory about the nature of artifacts, and potential modifications of the artifacts in achieving desired goals or functionality. By being able to state these axioms explicitly, it is possible to derive theorems and corollaries, as well as to develop specific analytical and constructive methodologies.

A Survey of Statistical Network Models

Author: Anna Goldenberg
Publisher: Now Publishers Inc
ISBN: 1601983204
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Networks are ubiquitous in science and have become a focal point for discussion in everyday life. Formal statistical models for the analysis of network data have emerged as a major topic of interest in diverse areas of study, and most of these involve a form of graphical representation. Probability models on graphs date back to 1959. Along with empirical studies in social psychology and sociology from the 1960s, these early works generated an active network community and a substantial literature in the 1970s. This effort moved into the statistical literature in the late 1970s and 1980s, and the past decade has seen a burgeoning network literature in statistical physics and computer science. The growth of the World Wide Web and the emergence of online networking communities such as Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn, and a host of more specialized professional network communities has intensified interest in the study of networks and network data. Our goal in this review is to provide the reader with an entry point to this burgeoning literature. We begin with an overview of the historical development of statistical network modeling and then we introduce a number of examples that have been studied in the network literature. Our subsequent discussion focuses on a number of prominent static and dynamic network models and their interconnections. We emphasize formal model descriptions, and pay special attention to the interpretation of parameters and their estimation. We end with a description of some open problems and challenges for machine learning and statistics.