Machine Discovery

Author: Jan Zytkow
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401721246
Format: PDF, ePub
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Human and machine discovery are gradual problem-solving processes of searching large problem spaces for incompletely defined goal objects. Research on problem solving has usually focused on searching an `instance space' (empirical exploration) and a `hypothesis space' (generation of theories). In scientific discovery, searching must often extend to other spaces as well: spaces of possible problems, of new or improved scientific instruments, of new problem representations, of new concepts, and others. This book focuses especially on the processes for finding new problem representations and new concepts, which are relatively new domains for research on discovery. Scientific discovery has usually been studied as an activity of individual investigators, but these individuals are positioned in a larger social structure of science, being linked by the `blackboard' of open publication (as well as by direct collaboration). Even while an investigator is working alone, the process is strongly influenced by knowledge and skills stored in memory as a result of previous social interactions. In this sense, all research on discovery, including the investigations on individual processes discussed in this book, is social psychology, or even sociology.

Socratic Epistemology

Author: Jaakko Hintikka
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139465791
Format: PDF
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Most current work in epistemology deals with the evaluation and justification of information already acquired. In this book, Jaakko Hintikka instead discusses the more important problem of how knowledge is acquired in the first place. His model of information-seeking is the old Socratic method of questioning, which has been generalized and brought up-to-date through the logical theory of questions and answers that he has developed. Hintikka also argues that philosophers' quest for a definition of knowledge is ill-conceived and that the entire notion of knowledge should be replaced by the concept of information. He offers an analysis of the different meanings of the concept of information and of their interrelations. The result is a new and illuminating approach to the field of epistemology.

Anime

Author: Jonathan Clements
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1844578844
Format: PDF, ePub
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This comprehensive history of Japanese animation draws on Japanese primary sources and testimony from industry professionals to explore the production and reception of anime, from its early faltering steps, to the international successes of Spirited Away and Pokémon.

A Mathematical Theory of Design Foundations Algorithms and Applications

Author: D. Braha
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475728727
Format: PDF, ePub
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Formal Design Theory (PDT) is a mathematical theory of design. The main goal of PDT is to develop a domain independent core model of the design process. The book focuses the reader's attention on the process by which ideas originate and are developed into workable products. In developing PDT, we have been striving toward what has been expressed by the distinguished scholar Simon (1969): that "the science of design is possible and some day we will be able to talk in terms of well-established theories and practices. " The book is divided into five interrelated parts. The conceptual approach is presented first (Part I); followed by the theoretical foundations of PDT (Part II), and from which the algorithmic and pragmatic implications are deduced (Part III). Finally, detailed case-studies illustrate the theory and the methods of the design process (Part IV), and additional practical considerations are evaluated (Part V). The generic nature of the concepts, theory and methods are validated by examples from a variety of disciplines. FDT explores issues such as: algebraic representation of design artifacts, idealized design process cycle, and computational analysis and measurement of design process complexity and quality. FDT's axioms convey the assumptions of the theory about the nature of artifacts, and potential modifications of the artifacts in achieving desired goals or functionality. By being able to state these axioms explicitly, it is possible to derive theorems and corollaries, as well as to develop specific analytical and constructive methodologies.

Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems

Author: Efraim Turban
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780130894656
Format: PDF, ePub
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Widely hailed for its contemporary, cutting-edge perspective, this comprehensive, reader-friendly text covers the latest decision support theories and practices used by managers and organizations. Current examples and cases are drawn from actual organizations and firms. Decision Making, Systems, Modeling, and Support. Data Warehousing, Access, Analysis, Mining, and Visualization. Modeling and Analysis. Decision Support System Development. Collaborative Computing Technologies: Group Support Systems. Enterprise Decision Support Systems. Knowledge Management. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems. Knowledge Acquisition and Validation. Knowledge Representation. Inference Techniques. Intelligent Systems Development. Neural Computing Applications, and Advanced Artificial Intelligent Systems and Applications. Intelligent Software Agents and Creativity. Implementing and Integrating Management Support Systems. Organizational and Societal Impacts of Management Support Systems. For managers interested in Decision Support Systems, Computerized Decision Making, and Management Support Systems.

The Power of Algorithms

Author: Giorgio Ausiello
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642396526
Format: PDF
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To examine, analyze, and manipulate a problem to the point of designing an algorithm for solving it is an exercise of fundamental value in many fields. With so many everyday activities governed by algorithmic principles, the power, precision, reliability and speed of execution demanded by users have transformed the design and construction of algorithms from a creative, artisanal activity into a full-fledged science in its own right. This book is aimed at all those who exploit the results of this new science, as designers and as consumers. The first chapter is an overview of the related history, demonstrating the long development of ideas such as recursion and more recent formalizations such as computability. The second chapter shows how the design of algorithms requires appropriate techniques and sophisticated organization of data. In the subsequent chapters the contributing authors present examples from diverse areas – such as routing and networking problems, Web search, information security, auctions and games, complexity and randomness, and the life sciences – that show how algorithmic thinking offers practical solutions and also deepens domain knowledge. The contributing authors are top-class researchers with considerable academic and industrial experience; they are also excellent educators and communicators and they draw on this experience with enthusiasm and humor. This book is an excellent introduction to an intriguing domain and it will be enjoyed by undergraduate and postgraduate students in computer science, engineering, and mathematics, and more broadly by all those engaged with algorithmic thinking.

Building an Intelligent Web Theory and Practice

Author: Pawan Lingras
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
ISBN: 1449663222
Format: PDF, Docs
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The World Wide Web has become an extremely popular way of publishing and distributing electronic resources. Though the Web is rich with information, collecting and making sense of this data is difficult because it is rather unorganized. Building an Intelligent Web introduces students and professionals to the state-of-the art development of Web Intelligence techniques and teaches how to apply these techniques to develop the next generation of intelligent Web sites. Each chapter contains theoretical bases, which are also illustrated with the help of simple numeric examples, followed by practical implementation. Students will find Building an Intelligent Web to be an active and exciting introduction to advanced Web mining topics. Topics covered include Web Intelligence, Information Retrieval, Semantic Web, Classification and Association Rules, SQL, Database Theory, Applications to e-commerce and Bioinformatics, Clustering, Modeling Web Topology, and much more!