Socratic Epistemology

Author: Jaakko Hintikka
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139465791
Format: PDF, ePub
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Most current work in epistemology deals with the evaluation and justification of information already acquired. In this book, Jaakko Hintikka instead discusses the more important problem of how knowledge is acquired in the first place. His model of information-seeking is the old Socratic method of questioning, which has been generalized and brought up-to-date through the logical theory of questions and answers that he has developed. Hintikka also argues that philosophers' quest for a definition of knowledge is ill-conceived and that the entire notion of knowledge should be replaced by the concept of information. He offers an analysis of the different meanings of the concept of information and of their interrelations. The result is a new and illuminating approach to the field of epistemology.

Machine Discovery

Author: Jan Zytkow
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401721246
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Human and machine discovery are gradual problem-solving processes of searching large problem spaces for incompletely defined goal objects. Research on problem solving has usually focused on searching an `instance space' (empirical exploration) and a `hypothesis space' (generation of theories). In scientific discovery, searching must often extend to other spaces as well: spaces of possible problems, of new or improved scientific instruments, of new problem representations, of new concepts, and others. This book focuses especially on the processes for finding new problem representations and new concepts, which are relatively new domains for research on discovery. Scientific discovery has usually been studied as an activity of individual investigators, but these individuals are positioned in a larger social structure of science, being linked by the `blackboard' of open publication (as well as by direct collaboration). Even while an investigator is working alone, the process is strongly influenced by knowledge and skills stored in memory as a result of previous social interactions. In this sense, all research on discovery, including the investigations on individual processes discussed in this book, is social psychology, or even sociology.

Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems

Author: Efraim Turban
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780130894656
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Widely hailed for its contemporary, cutting-edge perspective, this comprehensive, reader-friendly text covers the latest decision support theories and practices used by managers and organizations. Current examples and cases are drawn from actual organizations and firms. Decision Making, Systems, Modeling, and Support. Data Warehousing, Access, Analysis, Mining, and Visualization. Modeling and Analysis. Decision Support System Development. Collaborative Computing Technologies: Group Support Systems. Enterprise Decision Support Systems. Knowledge Management. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems. Knowledge Acquisition and Validation. Knowledge Representation. Inference Techniques. Intelligent Systems Development. Neural Computing Applications, and Advanced Artificial Intelligent Systems and Applications. Intelligent Software Agents and Creativity. Implementing and Integrating Management Support Systems. Organizational and Societal Impacts of Management Support Systems. For managers interested in Decision Support Systems, Computerized Decision Making, and Management Support Systems.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
Format: PDF, ePub
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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning

Author: Christopher M. Bishop
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781493938438
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This is the first textbook on pattern recognition to present the Bayesian viewpoint. The book presents approximate inference algorithms that permit fast approximate answers in situations where exact answers are not feasible. It uses graphical models to describe probability distributions when no other books apply graphical models to machine learning. No previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning concepts is assumed. Familiarity with multivariate calculus and basic linear algebra is required, and some experience in the use of probabilities would be helpful though not essential as the book includes a self-contained introduction to basic probability theory.