Making Medicines in Africa

Author: Maureen Mackintosh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137546476
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book is open access under a CC-BY license. The importance of the pharmaceutical industry in Sub-Saharan Africa, its claim to policy priority, is rooted in the vast unmet health needs of the sub-continent. Making Medicines in Africa is a collective endeavour, by a group of contributors with a strong African and more broadly Southern presence, to find ways to link technological development, investment and industrial growth in pharmaceuticals to improve access to essential good quality medicines, as part of moving towards universal access to competent health care in Africa. The authors aim to shift the emphasis in international debate and initiatives towards sustained Africa-based and African-led initiatives to tackle this huge challenge. Without the technological, industrial, intellectual, organisational and research-related capabilities associated with competent pharmaceutical production, and without policies that pull the industrial sectors towards serving local health needs, the African sub-continent cannot generate the resources to tackle its populations' needs and demands. Research for this book has been selected as one of the 20 best examples of the impact of UK research on development. See http://www.ukcds.org.uk/the-global-impact-of-uk-research for further details.

Making Medicines in Early Colonial Lima Peru

Author: Linda A. Newson
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004351272
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"Based on extensive archival research in Peru, Spain, and Italy, Making Medicines in Early Colonial Lima, Peru examines how apothecaries in Lima were trained, ran their businesses, traded medicinal products, prepared medicines, and found their place in society. In the book, Newson argues that apothecaries had the potential to be innovators in science, especially in the New World where they encountered new environments and diverse healing traditions. However, it shows that despite experimental tendencies among some apothecaries, they generally adhered to traditional humoral practices and imported materia medica from Spain rather than adopt native plants or exploit the region's rich mineral resources. This adherence was not due to state regulation, but reflected the entrenchment of humoral beliefs in popular thought and their promotion by the Church and Inquisition"--Provided by publisher.

Principles of Medicine in Africa

Author: Eldryd Parry
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521806169
Format: PDF, Docs
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A fully revised edition of the classic textbook for students and medical practitioners in Africa.

Equitable Access to High Cost Pharmaceuticals

Author: Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128119624
Format: PDF, ePub
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Equitable Access to High-Cost Pharmaceuticals seeks to aid the development and implementation of equitable public health policies by pharmaco-economics professionals, health economists, and policymakers. With detailed country-by country analysis of policy and regulation, the Work compares and contrasts national healthcare systems to support researchers and practitioners identify optimal healthcare policy solutions. The Work incorporates chapters on global regulatory changes, health technology assessment guidelines, and competitive effectiveness research recommendations from international bodies such as the OECD or the EU. Novel policies such as horizon scanning, managed-entry agreement and post-launch monitoring are considered in detail. The Work also thoroughly reviews novel pharmaceuticals with particular research interest, including cancer drugs, orphan medicines, Hep C, and personalized medicines. Evaluates impact and efficacy of current access policies and pricing regulation of high-cost drugs Incorporates existing guidelines and recommendations by international organizations Compares and contrasts how different countries fund and police high-cost drug access Explores novel and emergent policies, including managed entry agreement, analysis of real world data and differential pricing Reviews novel pharmaceuticals of current research interest

Healing Roots

Author: Julie Laplante
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 178238555X
Format: PDF
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Umhlonyane, also known as Artemisia afra, is one of the oldest and best-documented indigenous medicines in South Africa. This bush, which grows wild throughout the sub-Saharan region, smells and tastes like "medicine," thus easily making its way into people's lives and becoming the choice of everyday healing for Xhosa healer-diviners and Rastafarian herbalists. This "natural" remedy has recently sparked curiosity as scientists search for new molecules against a tuberculosis pandemic while hoping to recognize indigenous medicine. Laplante follows umhlonyane on its trails and trials of becoming a biopharmaceutical - from the "open air" to controlled environments - learning from the plant and from the people who use it with hopes in healing.

Pharmaceutical Lifecycle Management

Author: Tony Ellery
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470487534
Format: PDF, Docs
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A comprehensive guide to optimizing the lifecycle management of pharmaceutical brands The mounting challenges posed by cost containment policies and the prevalence of generic alternatives make optimizing the lifecycle management (LCM) of brand drugs essential for pharmaceutical companies looking to maximize the value of their products. Demonstrating how different measures can be combined to create winning strategies, Pharmaceutical Lifecycle Management: Making the Most of Each and Every Brand explores this increasingly important field to help readers understand what they can—and must—do to get the most out of their brands. Offering a truly immersive introduction to LCM options for pharmaceuticals, the book incorporates numerous real-life case studies that demonstrate successful and failed lifecycle management initiatives, explaining the key takeaway of each example. Filled with practical information on the process of actually writing and presenting an LCM plan, as well as how to link corporate, portfolio, and individual brand strategies, the book also offers a look ahead to predict which LCM strategies will continue to be effective in the future. While the development of new drugs designed to address unmet patient needs remains the single most important goal of any pharmaceutical company, effective LCM is invaluable for getting the greatest possible value from existing brands. Pharmaceutical Lifecycle Management walks you through the process step by step, making it indispensable reading for pharmaceutical executives and managers, as well as anyone working in the fields of drug research, development, and regulation.

Quality Assurance of Pharmaceuticals

Author: World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9241547081
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Quality assurance of pharmaceutical products is a continuing concern of WHO. Despite efforts made around the world to ensure a supply of quality and effective medicines, substandard, spurious and counterfeit products still compromise health care delivery in many countries. To respond to the global need for adequate quality assurance of pharmaceuticals, WHO's Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations has over the years made numerous recommendations to establish standards and guidelines and to promote the effective functioning of national regulatory and control systems and the implementation of internationally agreed standards by trained personnel. Many of the relevant documents endorsed by the Committee are reproduced in this volume providing guidance covering all aspects of good manufacturing practices (GMP). Important texts on inspection are also included. Most of the material has been published separately in the Expert Committee's reports. This compendium brings it together to make it more accessible and of greater practical value to those working in faculties of pharmacy, in medicines regulation and control and in the pharmaceutical industry. This is the second updated edition of the compendium and includes texts published in 2005 and 2006 in the WHO Technical Report Series.

Effective Drug Regulation

Author: Ratanawijitrasin S
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9241562064
Format: PDF
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Seven independent variables were used including the five financing instruments, the firm's ordinary debt, and the firm's operating risk.

Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs

Author: Committee on Understanding the Global Public Health Implications of Substandard, Falsified, and Counterfeit Medical Products
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309269393
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The adulteration and fraudulent manufacture of medicines is an old problem, vastly aggravated by modern manufacturing and trade. In the last decade, impotent antimicrobial drugs have compromised the treatment of many deadly diseases in poor countries. More recently, negligent production at a Massachusetts compounding pharmacy sickened hundreds of Americans. While the national drugs regulatory authority (hereafter, the regulatory authority) is responsible for the safety of a country's drug supply, no single country can entirely guarantee this today. The once common use of the term counterfeit to describe any drug that is not what it claims to be is at the heart of the argument. In a narrow, legal sense a counterfeit drug is one that infringes on a registered trademark. The lay meaning is much broader, including any drug made with intentional deceit. Some generic drug companies and civil society groups object to calling bad medicines counterfeit, seeing it as the deliberate conflation of public health and intellectual property concerns. Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs accepts the narrow meaning of counterfeit, and, because the nuances of trademark infringement must be dealt with by courts, case by case, the report does not discuss the problem of counterfeit medicines.

Medical Apartheid

Author: Harriet A. Washington
Publisher: Anchor
ISBN: 9780767929394
Format: PDF, ePub
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From the era of slavery to the present day, the first full history of black America’s shocking mistreatment as unwilling and unwitting experimental subjects at the hands of the medical establishment. Medical Apartheid is the first and only comprehensive history of medical experimentation on African Americans. Starting with the earliest encounters between black Americans and Western medical researchers and the racist pseudoscience that resulted, it details the ways both slaves and freedmen were used in hospitals for experiments conducted without their knowledge—a tradition that continues today within some black populations. It reveals how blacks have historically been prey to grave-robbing as well as unauthorized autopsies and dissections. Moving into the twentieth century, it shows how the pseudoscience of eugenics and social Darwinism was used to justify experimental exploitation and shoddy medical treatment of blacks, and the view that they were biologically inferior, oversexed, and unfit for adult responsibilities. Shocking new details about the government’s notorious Tuskegee experiment are revealed, as are similar, less-well-known medical atrocities conducted by the government, the armed forces, prisons, and private institutions. The product of years of prodigious research into medical journals and experimental reports long undisturbed, Medical Apartheid reveals the hidden underbelly of scientific research and makes possible, for the first time, an understanding of the roots of the African American health deficit. At last, it provides the fullest possible context for comprehending the behavioral fallout that has caused black Americans to view researchers—and indeed the whole medical establishment—with such deep distrust. No one concerned with issues of public health and racial justice can afford not to read Medical Apartheid, a masterful book that will stir up both controversy and long-needed debate.