Marine Biodiversity of Costa Rica Central America

Author: Ingo S. Wehrtmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402082789
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Life began in the sea, and even today most of the deep diversity of the planet is marine. This is often forgotten, especially in tropical countries like Costa Rica, renowned for their rain forests and the multitude of life forms found therein. Thus this book focusing on marine diversity of Costa Rica is particularly welcome. How many marine species are there in Costa Rica? The authors report a total of 6,777 species, or 3. 5% of the world’s total. Yet the vast majority of marine species have yet to be formally described. Recent estimates of the numbers of species on coral reefs range from 1–9 million, so that the true number of marine species in Costa Rica is certainly far higher. In some groups the numbers are likely to be vastly higher because to date they have been so little studied. Only one species of nematode is reported, despite the fact that it has been said that nematodes are the most diverse of all marine groups. In better studied groups such as mollusks and crustaceans, reported numbers are in the thousands, but even in these groups many species remain to be described. Indeed the task of describing marine species is daunting – if there really are about 9 million marine species and Costa Rica has 3. 5% of them, then the total number would be over 300,000. Clearly, so much remains to be done that new approaches are needed. Genetic methods have en- mous promise in this regard.

Echinoderm Research and Diversity in Latin America

Author: Juan José Alvarado
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642200516
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book compiles for the first time the development of echinoderm research in Latin America. The book contains 17 chapters, one introductory, 15 country chapters, and a final biogeographic analysis. It compiles all the investigations published in international and local journals, reports, theses and other gray literature. Each chapter is composed of 7 sections: introduction describes the marine environments, and main oceanographic characteristics, followed by a history of research account divided by specific subjects. The next section addresses patterns of distribution and diversity. A specific section would explain fishery or aquaculture activities. The next sections deal with environmental and anthropogenic threats that are affecting echinoderm, and any conservation or management action. Finally, a section with conclusions, needs and new lines of research. The book will include two appendixes with species lists of all echinoderms with bathimetric data, habitat and distribution.

Global Atlas of Marine Fisheries

Author: Daniel Pauly
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1610917693
Format: PDF, Docs
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The Global Atlas of Marine Fisheries is the first and only book to provide accurate, country-by-country fishery catch data. This groundbreaking information has been gathered from independent sources by the world's foremost fisheries experts. Edited by Daniel Pauly and Dirk Zeller of the Sea Around Us Project, the Atlas includes one-page reports on 273 countries and their territories, plus fourteen topical global chapters. Each national report describes the current state of the country's fishery; the policies, politics, and social factors affecting it; and potential solutions. The global chapters address cross-cutting issues, from the economics of fisheries to the impacts of mariculture. Extensive maps and graphics offer attractive and accessible visual representations.

Costa Rican Ecosystems

Author: Maarten Kappelle
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022627893X
Format: PDF, Docs
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In 1502, Christopher Columbus named Costa Rica, and while gold and silver never materialized to justify the moniker of rich coast in purely economic terms, scientists and ecotravelers alike have long appreciated its incredible wealth. Wealth in Costa Rica is best measured by its biodiversity--home to a dizzying number of plants and animals, many endemic, it's a country that has long encouraged and welcomed researchers from the world over, and is exemplary in the creation and commitment to indigenous conservation and management programs. Costa Rica is considered to have the best preserved natural resources in Latin America. Approximately nine percent (about 1,000,000 acres) of Costa Rica has been protected in 15 national parks, and a comparable amount of land is protected as wildlife refuges, forest reserves or Indian reservations. This long-awaited synthesis of Costa Rican ecosystems is an authoritative presentation of the paleoecology, biogeography, structure, conservation, and sustainable use of Costa Rica's ecosystems. It systematically covers the entire range of Costa Rica's natural and managed, terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems, including its island systems (Cocos Islands), the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and shores (coasts, coral reefs, mangrove forests), its lowlands (dry, season and wet forests), its highlands (the northern volcanoes and southern Talamanca's), and its estuaries, rivers, lakes, swamps and bogs.

Marine Algae of the Northern Gulf of California II

Author: James N. Norris
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF
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The present treatment constitutes a taxonomic study of the benthic marine red algae known in the northern Gulf of California. In all, 380 species of Rhodophyta belonging to two subphyla were found: the Rhodophytina represented by 2 classes, 2 orders, 2 families, 7 genera, and 14 species; and, the Eurhodophytina represented by 2 classes, 5 subclasses, 19 orders, 45 families, 132 genera, and 366 species. Of the red algae 67 are endemic species. Along with the 133 species of Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae in the northern Gulf (Norris 2010) there are now 512 benthic marine macroalgal species known in the northern Gulf. The systematic account includes the accepted taxon name, descriptions of the subphyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species of red algae presently known in the northern Gulf, with Keys to serve as a guide to their identification. Along with the current name for each species are its basionym, synonyms, type locality, relevant taxonomic studies, description, habitat, and distribution in the Gulf of California, and if applicable (i.e., not endemic) in the Eastern Pacific, Central Pacific, and/or Western Pacific. In addition to reviewing the taxonomic phycological literature pertinent to the Gulf of California and Pacific Mexico, several distribution extensions and new records are given. One new genus, one new subgeneric section, and eight new species are described. One new species name is given to replace an illegitimate name. Twenty-seven new combinations are made.