Maritime Terrorism

Author: Michael D. Greenberg
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833040308
Format: PDF, Docs
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Policymakers have become increasingly concerned in recent years about the possibility of future maritime terrorist attacks. Though the historical occurrence of such attacks has been limited, recognition that maritime vessels and facilities may be particularly vulnerable to terrorism has galvanized concerns. In addition, some plausible maritime attacks could have very significant consequences, in the form of mass casualties, severe property damage, and attendant disruption of commerce. Understanding the nature of maritime terrorism risk requires an investigation of threats, vulnerabilities, and consequences associated with potential attacks, as grounded both by relevant historical data and by intelligence on the capabilities and intentions of known terrorist groups. These risks also provide the context for understanding government institutions that will respond to future attacks, and particularly so with regard to the U.S. civil justice system. In principle, civil liability operates to redistribute the harms associated with legally redressable claims, so that related costs are borne by the parties responsible for having caused them. In connection with maritime terrorism, civil liability creates the prospect that independent commercial defendants will be held responsible for damages caused by terrorist attacks. This book explores risks and U.S. civil liability rules as they may apply in the context of these types of attacks.

Reflections on the Contemporary Law of the Sea

Author: Helmut Tuerk
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9004212574
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Reflections on the Contemporary Law of the Sea describes the development and the present state of the law of the sea, particularly in light of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, also drawing attention to some of the problems facing the international community.

The International Court of Justice and the Judicial Function

Author: Gleider I Hernández
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191502561
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book evaluates the concept of the function of law through the prism of the International Court of Justice. It goes beyond a conventional analysis of the Court's case law and applicable law, to consider the compromise between supranational order and state sovereignty that lies at the heart of its institutional design. It argues that this compromise prevents the Court from playing a progressive role in the development of international law. Instead, it influences the international legal order in more subtle ways, in particular, in shaping understanding of the nature or form of the international legal order as a whole. The book concludes that the role of the Court is not to advance some universal conception of international law but rather to decide the cases before it in the best possible way within its institutional limits, while remaining aware of law's deeper theoretical foundations. The book considers three key elements: firstly, it examines the historical aspects of the Court's constitutive Statute, and the manner in which it defines its judicial character. Secondly, it considers the drafting process, the function of a dissenting opinion, and the role of the individual judge, in an attempt to discern insights on the function of the Court. Finally, the book examines the Court's practice in regard to three conceptual issues which assist in understanding the Court's function: its theory of precedent; its definition of the 'international community'; and its theory on the completeness of the international legal order.

Regions Institutions and Law of the Sea

Author: Harry N. Scheiber
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9004220216
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Regions, Institutions, and Law of the Sea: Studies in Ocean Governance offers fresh perspectives both on issues specific to major ocean regions, and on the nature and functions of institutions that implement the legal order of the oceans. Of special interest is a set of chapters by distinguished scholars and jurists providing nuanced analysis of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea as a key actor in the institutional and regime structure. Other expert authors contribute timely analysis of specific ocean uses in the context of implementation of "soft" and "hard" law.

International Organizations and the Law of the Sea

Author: Barbara Kwiatkowska
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9789041110046
Format: PDF
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Now in its 12th year, the "NILOS Documentary Yearbook" provides the reader with an excellent collection of documents related to ocean affairs and the law of the sea, issued each year by organizations, organs and bodies of the United Nations system. Documents of the UN General Assembly, Meeting of State Parties to the 1982 UN Law of the Sea Convention, ISBA, ITLOS, Follow-Up to the UN Straddling Fish Stocks and Small Island States Conferences, Panama Canal, ECOSOC, UNEP and UNCTAD are included first, followed by the documents of FAO, IAEA, IMO, UNESCO/IOC. As in the previous volumes, documents which were issued in the course of 1996 are reproduced, while other relevant documents are listed. The "NILOS Documentary Yearbook" has proved to be of invaluable assistance in facilitating access by the community of scholars and practitioners in ocean affairs and the law of the sea to essential documentation. The entry of the 1992 UN Law of the Sea Convention into force on 16th November 1994 and of the Part XI Agreement - on 28 July 1996, and progress in the implementation of Chapter 17 of Agenda 21, make continuation of this assistance of particular significance in the years to come. The members of the "Yearbook"'s Advisory Board are: Judges Abdul Koroma and Shigeru Oda of the ICJ, Judges Thomas Mensah, Dolliver Nelson and Tullio Treves of the ITLOS, as well as Rosalie Balkin, Edward Brown, Lee Kimball, Bernard Oxman and Shabtai Rosenne.

The Law of the Sea Convention

Author: Myron H. Nordquist
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 900420136X
Format: PDF, ePub
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This text provides valuable insight into a number of contemporary and pressing issues concerning the world's oceans and their management.

The Interception of Vessels on the High Seas

Author: Efthymios Papastavridis
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1782250859
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The principal aim of this book is to address the international legal questions arising from the 'right of visit on the high seas' in the twenty-first century. This right is considered the most significant exception to the fundamental principle of the freedom of the high seas (the freedom, in peacetime, to remain free of interference by ships of another flag). It is this freedom that has been challenged by a recent significant increase in interceptions to counter the threats of international terrorism and WMD proliferation, or to suppress transnational organised crime at sea, particularly the trafficking of narcotics and smuggling of migrants. The author questions whether the principle of non-interference has been so significantly curtailed as to have lost its relevance in the contemporary legal order of the oceans. The book begins with an historical and theoretical examination of the framework underlying interception. This historical survey informs the remainder of the work, which then looks at the legal framework of the right of visit, contemporary challenges to the traditional right, interference on the high seas for the maintenance of international peace and security, interferences to maintain the 'bon usage' of the oceans (navigation and fishing), piracy j'ure gentium'and current counter-piracy operations off the coast of Somalia, the problems posed by illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing, interdiction operations to counter drug and people trafficking, and recent interception operations in the Mediterranean Sea organised by FRONTEX.

International Law and the Protection of People at Sea

Author: Irini Papanicolopulu
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192506463
Format: PDF
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Media interest in the fates of people at sea has heightened across the last decade. The attacks and the hostage taking of victims by Somali pirates, and the treatment of migrants and asylum seekers in the Mediterranean, ask pressing questions, as does the sinking of the Costa Concordia off the Italian island of Giglio which, one hundred years after the Titanic capsized, reminded the world that, despite modern navigation systems and technology, shipping is still fallible. Do pirates have human rights? Can migrants at sea be turned back to the State from which they have sailed? How can the crews of vessels be protected against inhuman and degrading working and living conditions? And are States liable under international human rights treaties for arresting drug traffickers on the high seas? The first text to comprehensively compare the legal rights of different people at sea, Irini Papanicolopulu's timely text argues that there is an overarching duty of the state to protect people at sea and adopt all necessary acts with a view towards ensuring enjoyment of their rights. Rather than being in doubt, she reveals that the emerging law in this area is watertight.

Oceans Management in the 21st Century

Author: Alex G. Oude Elferink
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9004138528
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Chapters throughout this book assess the roles and impact upon oceans management of the institutions both inside and outside the Convention's framework, as well as the United Nations General Assembly as concerns its coordinating role in the field of oceans and law of the sea. Questions addressed concern the interpretation of the Convention's substantive provisions and how these various institutions interact. The impetus to resolve these and other challenges in the law of the sea and oceans management will ensure the law of the sea's continuing evolution in the years ahead.