Markov Chains and Decision Processes for Engineers and Managers

Author: Theodore J. Sheskin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420051121
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Recognized as a powerful tool for dealing with uncertainty, Markov modeling can enhance your ability to analyze complex production and service systems. However, most books on Markov chains or decision processes are often either highly theoretical, with few examples, or highly prescriptive, with little justification for the steps of the algorithms used to solve Markov models. Providing a unified treatment of Markov chains and Markov decision processes in a single volume, Markov Chains and Decision Processes for Engineers and Managers supplies a highly detailed description of the construction and solution of Markov models that facilitates their application to diverse processes. Organized around Markov chain structure, the book begins with descriptions of Markov chain states, transitions, structure, and models, and then discusses steady state distributions and passage to a target state in a regular Markov chain. The author treats canonical forms and passage to target states or to classes of target states for reducible Markov chains. He adds an economic dimension by associating rewards with states, thereby linking a Markov chain to a Markov decision process, and then adds decisions to create a Markov decision process, enabling an analyst to choose among alternative Markov chains with rewards so as to maximize expected rewards. An introduction to state reduction and hidden Markov chains rounds out the coverage. In a presentation that balances algorithms and applications, the author provides explanations of the logical relationships that underpin the formulas or algorithms through informal derivations, and devotes considerable attention to the construction of Markov models. He constructs simplified Markov models for a wide assortment of processes such as the weather, gambling, diffusion of gases, a waiting line, inventory, component replacement, machine maintenance, selling a stock, a charge account, a career path, patient flow in a hospital, marketing, and a production line. This treatment helps you harness the power of Markov modeling and apply it to your organization’s processes.

Handbook of Markov Decision Processes

Author: Eugene A. Feinberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461508053
Format: PDF
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Eugene A. Feinberg Adam Shwartz This volume deals with the theory of Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) and their applications. Each chapter was written by a leading expert in the re spective area. The papers cover major research areas and methodologies, and discuss open questions and future research directions. The papers can be read independently, with the basic notation and concepts ofSection 1.2. Most chap ters should be accessible by graduate or advanced undergraduate students in fields of operations research, electrical engineering, and computer science. 1.1 AN OVERVIEW OF MARKOV DECISION PROCESSES The theory of Markov Decision Processes-also known under several other names including sequential stochastic optimization, discrete-time stochastic control, and stochastic dynamic programming-studiessequential optimization ofdiscrete time stochastic systems. The basic object is a discrete-time stochas tic system whose transition mechanism can be controlled over time. Each control policy defines the stochastic process and values of objective functions associated with this process. The goal is to select a "good" control policy. In real life, decisions that humans and computers make on all levels usually have two types ofimpacts: (i) they cost orsavetime, money, or other resources, or they bring revenues, as well as (ii) they have an impact on the future, by influencing the dynamics. In many situations, decisions with the largest immediate profit may not be good in view offuture events. MDPs model this paradigm and provide results on the structure and existence of good policies and on methods for their calculation.

Markov Processes for Stochastic Modeling

Author: Oliver Ibe
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0124078397
Format: PDF, Docs
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Markov processes are processes that have limited memory. In particular, their dependence on the past is only through the previous state. They are used to model the behavior of many systems including communications systems, transportation networks, image segmentation and analysis, biological systems and DNA sequence analysis, random atomic motion and diffusion in physics, social mobility, population studies, epidemiology, animal and insect migration, queueing systems, resource management, dams, financial engineering, actuarial science, and decision systems. Covering a wide range of areas of application of Markov processes, this second edition is revised to highlight the most important aspects as well as the most recent trends and applications of Markov processes. The author spent over 16 years in the industry before returning to academia, and he has applied many of the principles covered in this book in multiple research projects. Therefore, this is an applications-oriented book that also includes enough theory to provide a solid ground in the subject for the reader. Presents both the theory and applications of the different aspects of Markov processes Includes numerous solved examples as well as detailed diagrams that make it easier to understand the principle being presented Discusses different applications of hidden Markov models, such as DNA sequence analysis and speech analysis.

Decision Making in Systems Engineering and Management

Author: Gregory S. Parnell, PhD
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470934719
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Decision Making in Systems Engineering and Management is a comprehensive textbook that provides a logical process and analytical techniques for fact-based decision making for the most challenging systems problems. Grounded in systems thinking and based on sound systems engineering principles, the systems decisions process (SDP) leverages multiple objective decision analysis, multiple attribute value theory, and value-focused thinking to define the problem, measure stakeholder value, design creative solutions, explore the decision trade off space in the presence of uncertainty, and structure successful solution implementation. In addition to classical systems engineering problems, this approach has been successfully applied to a wide range of challenges including personnel recruiting, retention, and management; strategic policy analysis; facilities design and management; resource allocation; information assurance; security systems design; and other settings whose structure can be conceptualized as a system.

Continuous Time Markov Decision Processes

Author: Xianping Guo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642025471
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Continuous-time Markov decision processes (MDPs), also known as controlled Markov chains, are used for modeling decision-making problems that arise in operations research (for instance, inventory, manufacturing, and queueing systems), computer science, communications engineering, control of populations (such as fisheries and epidemics), and management science, among many other fields. This volume provides a unified, systematic, self-contained presentation of recent developments on the theory and applications of continuous-time MDPs. The MDPs in this volume include most of the cases that arise in applications, because they allow unbounded transition and reward/cost rates. Much of the material appears for the first time in book form.

An Introduction to Stochastic Modeling

Author: Howard M. Taylor
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483220443
Format: PDF, Kindle
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An Introduction to Stochastic Modeling, Revised Edition provides information pertinent to the standard concepts and methods of stochastic modeling. This book presents the rich diversity of applications of stochastic processes in the sciences. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of diverse types of stochastic models, which predicts a set of possible outcomes weighed by their likelihoods or probabilities. This text then provides exercises in the applications of simple stochastic analysis to appropriate problems. Other chapters consider the study of general functions of independent, identically distributed, nonnegative random variables representing the successive intervals between renewals. This book discusses as well the numerous examples of Markov branching processes that arise naturally in various scientific disciplines. The final chapter deals with queueing models, which aid the design process by predicting system performance. This book is a valuable resource for students of engineering and management science. Engineers will also find this book useful.

Simulation Based Algorithms for Markov Decision Processes

Author: Hyeong Soo Chang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447150228
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Markov decision process (MDP) models are widely used for modeling sequential decision-making problems that arise in engineering, economics, computer science, and the social sciences. Many real-world problems modeled by MDPs have huge state and/or action spaces, giving an opening to the curse of dimensionality and so making practical solution of the resulting models intractable. In other cases, the system of interest is too complex to allow explicit specification of some of the MDP model parameters, but simulation samples are readily available (e.g., for random transitions and costs). For these settings, various sampling and population-based algorithms have been developed to overcome the difficulties of computing an optimal solution in terms of a policy and/or value function. Specific approaches include adaptive sampling, evolutionary policy iteration, evolutionary random policy search, and model reference adaptive search. This substantially enlarged new edition reflects the latest developments in novel algorithms and their underpinning theories, and presents an updated account of the topics that have emerged since the publication of the first edition. Includes: innovative material on MDPs, both in constrained settings and with uncertain transition properties; game-theoretic method for solving MDPs; theories for developing roll-out based algorithms; and details of approximation stochastic annealing, a population-based on-line simulation-based algorithm. The self-contained approach of this book will appeal not only to researchers in MDPs, stochastic modeling, and control, and simulation but will be a valuable source of tuition and reference for students of control and operations research.

Markov Chains Models Algorithms and Applications

Author: Wai-Ki Ching
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 038729337X
Format: PDF
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Markov chains are a particularly powerful and widely used tool for analyzing a variety of stochastic (probabilistic) systems over time. This monograph will present a series of Markov models, starting from the basic models and then building up to higher-order models. Included in the higher-order discussions are multivariate models, higher-order multivariate models, and higher-order hidden models. In each case, the focus is on the important kinds of applications that can be made with the class of models being considered in the current chapter. Special attention is given to numerical algorithms that can efficiently solve the models. Therefore, Markov Chains: Models, Algorithms and Applications outlines recent developments of Markov chain models for modeling queueing sequences, Internet, re-manufacturing systems, reverse logistics, inventory systems, bio-informatics, DNA sequences, genetic networks, data mining, and many other practical systems.

Markov Decision Processes in Practice

Author: Richard J. Boucherie
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319477668
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book presents classical Markov Decision Processes (MDP) for real-life applications and optimization. MDP allows users to develop and formally support approximate and simple decision rules, and this book showcases state-of-the-art applications in which MDP was key to the solution approach. The book is divided into six parts. Part 1 is devoted to the state-of-the-art theoretical foundation of MDP, including approximate methods such as policy improvement, successive approximation and infinite state spaces as well as an instructive chapter on Approximate Dynamic Programming. It then continues with five parts of specific and non-exhaustive application areas. Part 2 covers MDP healthcare applications, which includes different screening procedures, appointment scheduling, ambulance scheduling and blood management. Part 3 explores MDP modeling within transportation. This ranges from public to private transportation, from airports and traffic lights to car parking or charging your electric car . Part 4 contains three chapters that illustrates the structure of approximate policies for production or manufacturing structures. In Part 5, communications is highlighted as an important application area for MDP. It includes Gittins indices, down-to-earth call centers and wireless sensor networks. Finally Part 6 is dedicated to financial modeling, offering an instructive review to account for financial portfolios and derivatives under proportional transactional costs. The MDP applications in this book illustrate a variety of both standard and non-standard aspects of MDP modeling and its practical use. This book should appeal to readers for practitioning, academic research and educational purposes, with a background in, among others, operations research, mathematics, computer science, and industrial engineering.

Continuous Time Markov Chains and Applications

Author: G. George Yin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461443466
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book gives a systematic treatment of singularly perturbed systems that naturally arise in control and optimization, queueing networks, manufacturing systems, and financial engineering. It presents results on asymptotic expansions of solutions of Komogorov forward and backward equations, properties of functional occupation measures, exponential upper bounds, and functional limit results for Markov chains with weak and strong interactions. To bridge the gap between theory and applications, a large portion of the book is devoted to applications in controlled dynamic systems, production planning, and numerical methods for controlled Markovian systems with large-scale and complex structures in the real-world problems. This second edition has been updated throughout and includes two new chapters on asymptotic expansions of solutions for backward equations and hybrid LQG problems. The chapters on analytic and probabilistic properties of two-time-scale Markov chains have been almost completely rewritten and the notation has been streamlined and simplified. This book is written for applied mathematicians, engineers, operations researchers, and applied scientists. Selected material from the book can also be used for a one semester advanced graduate-level course in applied probability and stochastic processes.