Materials Science for Structural Geology

Author: Mervyn S. Paterson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400755457
Format: PDF
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This book sets out the basic materials science needed for understanding the plastic deformation of rocks and minerals. Although at atmospheric pressure or at relatively low environmental pressures, these materials tend to be brittle, that is, to fracture with little prior plastic deformation when non-hydrostatically stressed, they can undergo substantial permanent strain when stressed under environmental conditions of high confining pressure and high temperature, such as occur geologically in the Earth’s crust and upper mantle. Thus the plastic deformation of rocks and minerals is of fundamental interest in structural geology and geodynamics. In mountain-building processes and during convective stirring in the Earth’s mantle, rocks can undergo very large amounts of plastic flow, accompanied by substantial changes in microstructure. These changes in microstructure remain in the rocks as evidence of the past deformation history. There are a number of types of physical processes whereby rock and minerals can undergo deformation under geological conditions. The physics of these processes is set out in this book.

Grundlagen

Author: Michael Quednau
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110426773
Format: PDF, ePub
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Von chemischen und mikrobiologischen Grundlagen bis zu Anwendungen im Bergbau und der industriellen Synthese von Nanopartikeln fasst dieses zweibändige Lehrbuch zum ersten Mal die Gesamtheit der Geomikrobiologie für den Studenten zusammen. Dieser erste Teil befasst sich mit den Grundlagen, der Geobiochemie und der Kristallographie der synthetisierten Materialien.

Neutron Applications in Earth Energy and Environmental Sciences

Author: Liyuan Liang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387094168
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences offers a comprehensive overview of the wide ranging applications of neutron scattering techniques to elucidate the fundamental materials properties at the nano-, micro- and meso-scale, which underpin research in the related fields of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences. Introductions to neutron scattering fundamentals and instrumentation are paired with a thorough review of the applications to a large variety of scientific and technological problems, written through the direct experience of leading scientists in each field. Tailored to a wide audience, this volume provides the novice with an inspiring introduction and stimulates the expert to consider these non-conventional problem solving techniques in his/her field of interest. Earth and environmental scientists, engineers, researchers and graduate students involved with materials science will find Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences a valuable ready-to-use reference.

The Omega Theory

Author: Jure Žalohar
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128145811
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Omega-Theory: A New Physics of Earthquakes, Second Edition offers a unifying, mathematical framework to describe and answer the most pressing and unexamined dilemmas of earthquake sequences. Those in the fields of seismology and geology are currently faced with a vast and complex mathematical structure, involving many new, natural laws and theorems. This book interprets this structure as a new physical theory and paradigm, helping users understand the tectonic and seismic processes within the Earth. As such, it is an essential resource for future researchers in the fields of structural geology, physics of the Earth, and seismology. In the last decades, generations of seismologists, geophysicists, and geologists have accumulated enough knowledge and information to allow for the reformulation and solution of this essential problem. Hence, this book provides a great resource for researchers and professionals. Brings together twenty years of research in the field of geophysics and attacks the problem within the framework of the Cosserat continuum theory Heavily tested on tens of natural examples and numerical tests Includes 350 color figures and graphs Spans across many fields of theoretical physics and geology, such as plate tectonics, synchronization of chaotic systems, solitons and fractals, mathematical set theory, and quantum mechanics

Understanding Mineral Deposits

Author: Kula Misra
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401139253
Format: PDF, ePub
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Mineral deposits have supplied useful or valuable material for human consumption long before they became objects of scientific curiosity or commercial exploitation. In fact, the earliest human interest in rocks was probably because of the easily accessible, useful (e. g. , red pigment in the form of earthy hematite) or valuable (e. g. , native gold and gemstones) materials they contained at places. In modem times, the study of mineral deposits has evolved into an applied science employing detailed field observations, sophisticated laboratory techniques for additional information, and computer modeling to build complex hypotheses. Understanding concepts that would someday help geologists to find new mineral deposits or exploit the known ones more efficiently have always been, and will continue to be, at the core of any course on mineral deposits, but it is a fascinating subject in its own right, even for students who do not intend to be professional economic geologists. I believe that a course on mineral deposits should be designed as a "capstone course" that illustrates a comprehensive application of concepts from many other disciplines in geology (mineralogy, stratigraphy and sedimentation, structure and tectonics, petrology, geochemistry, paleontology, geomorphology, etc. ). This book is intended as a text for such an introductory course in economic geology, primarily for senior undergraduate and graduate students in colleges and universities. It should also serve as a useful information resource for professional economic geologists.

Structural Geology

Author: Bruce E. Hobbs
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0124079334
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Structural Geology is a groundbreaking reference that introduces you to the concepts of nonlinear solid mechanics and non-equilibrium thermodynamics in metamorphic geology, offering a fresh perspective on rock structure and its potential for new interpretations of geological evolution. This book stands alone in unifying deformation and metamorphism and the development of the mineralogical fabrics and the structures that we see in the field. This reflects the thermodynamics of systems not at equilibrium within the framework of modern nonlinear solid mechanics. The thermodynamic approach enables the various mechanical, thermal, hydrological and chemical processes to be rigorously coupled through the second law of thermodynamics, invariably leading to nonlinear behavior. The book also differs from others in emphasizing the implications of this nonlinear behavior with respect to the development of the diverse, complex, even fractal, range of structures in deformed metamorphic rocks. Building on the fundamentals of structural geology by discussing the nonlinear processes that operate during the deformation and metamorphism of rocks in the Earth's crust, the book's concepts help geoscientists and graduate-level students understand how these processes control or influence the structures and metamorphic fabrics—providing applications in hydrocarbon exploration, ore mineral exploration, and architectural engineering. Authored by two of the world's foremost experts in structural geology, representing more than 70 years of experience in research and instruction Nearly 300 figures, illustrations, working examples, and photographs reinforce key concepts and underscore major advances in structural geology

Rock forming Minerals

Author: William Alexander Deer
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 9781862390812
Format: PDF, ePub
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Originally published in 1963, this text provides a major revision of the first edition. It is devoted to the feldspar minerals, incorporating the advances in knowledge and understanding arising from the new and improved techniques for the study of minerals that have developed over the decades between editions. The authors have set out to maintain the general approach used in the other volumes, summarizing important research results and presenting them in an organized fashion.

Manganese Ores of Supergene Zone Geochemistry of Formation

Author: I.M. Varentsov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401721742
Format: PDF, Docs
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The major part of the world's high grade industrial manganese ore is being mined in supergene deposits. This book represents the first attempt to bring together not only academic but also commercial data on all aspects of the geochemistry of formation of supergene manganese ores. It is a distinctive account of the geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, experimental modelling studies, mechanisms of formation processes and geochemical evolution through geological time of manganese ores for all types of supergene deposits. Special emphasis is placed on the general geochemical model of supergene manganese ore formation, which can be applied in geochemical exploration. Despite the fact that supergene manganese ores have been used by mankind since the early centuries, it is only during the last decade that a comprehensive understanding of the nature of geochemical processes of formation of these deposits has become available and their potential as an economic resource has been recognized against other genetical types of manganese accumulations. Audience: This substantial and comprehensive volume is of interest to economic geologists, mining engineers, geochemists, mineralogists and other specialized geoscientists.

Proceedings of the 11th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy ICAM

Author: Faqin Dong
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319139487
Format: PDF
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These proceedings comprise the peer-reviewed contributions submitted to the 11th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) held July 5-10, 2013, at the Southwest University of Science and Technology (SWUST) in Mianyang, China. The biennial ICAM is the most important gathering of applied mineralogists, organized every other year by the ICAM-Council. The multidisciplinary research presented in this book will be of interest to scientists and professionals dealing with topics like environmental and medical mineralogy; industrial minerals; bio-minerals and biomaterials; advanced materials; process mineralogy; mining and metallurgy; cultural heritage; the interaction of minerals with microorganisms; and solid waste treatment and recycling, including genetic mineralogy. “The field of applied mineralogy has been able to match society’s pace by continuously reinventing itself, quickly adopting new technologies and instrumentation as they became available and putting them to work for the service of mankind living in a world that heavily relies on minerals. Over the past few decades, applied mineralogy has evolved into a cutting- edge discipline that leads the way for science, engineering and research and development to benefit society. Contrary to popular belief, mineral resources are limited, and we have an obligation to our heirs to use them responsibly.” Dr. Maarten A.T.M. Broekmans Post-President ICAM Council

Physics of Minerals and Inorganic Materials

Author: A.S. Marfunin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642670466
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The physics of minerals in a broad sense implies the fundamental aspects of understanding mineral matter: the electronic structure of atoms related to their behavior in geochemical processes; the atomic and electronic structures of minerals; the properties of minerals, with their genetic, geophysical, and technical significance, and their pressure and temperature dependence; the mechanisms of phenomena and reactions in mineral formation and transformation processes; the physical me thods applied in mineralogical, geochemical and petrological studies, and to a great extent in geological surveys and prospecting. In a narrower sense, it is a branch lying in the border area between mineralogy and solid-state physics, dealing with those aspects of mine ralogy which require, for their understanding and investigation, special knowledge in contemporary physics and chemistry of solids. The physics of minerals accounts for the third crucial change within this century in the conceptual foundations of mineralogy: after physi cochemical mineralogy, from experimental studies of phase relations to parage netic analyses, and crystal chemistry of minerals, there followed solid-state physics, which has evolved to its present state over the past 25 years. The task of mineralogy has expanded greatly. In addition to the identification and description of minerals, it is becoming necessary to establish the relationships between structure, composition and properties of minerals and their genesis, their distribution within geological regions, magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary formations and types of ore deposits. The development of new methods of investigation requires an understanding of the physical meaning of the parameters under evaluation.