Mathematical and Analogical Reasoning of Young Learners

Author: Lyn D. English
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135638691
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Mathematical and Analogical Reasoning of Young Learners provides foundational knowledge of the nature, development, and assessment of mathematical and analogical reasoning in young children. Reasoning is fundamental to understanding mathematics and is identified as one of the 10 key standards for school mathematics for the new millennium. The book draws on longitudinal and cross-cultural studies, conducted in the United States and Australia, of children's reasoning development as they progressed from preschool through the end of second grade. The multifaceted analysis of young children's development of mathematical and analogical reasoning focuses on individual learners, their learning environments, and the interaction between the two. The multidisciplinary team of authors present multiple perspectives and multiple methodologies, and provide valuable information on organizing and sustaining interdisciplinary and cross-cultural inquiry. Key issues addressed include: *the relationship between mathematical and analogical reasoning; *how changes in children's reasoning relate to the implicit instruction they receive in their classrooms; *analyses of the participating teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practices with respect to mathematical and analogical reasoning of young learners; and *ways in which we might promote development of mathematical and analogical reasoning in young children. This volume is highly relevant for mathematics educators, researchers in mathematics education, educational psychologists, early childhood teachers, and others interested in mathematical development of young children, in particular, the development of their reasoning processes.

Becoming a Reflective Mathematics Teacher

Author: Alice F. Artzt
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0805861939
Format: PDF, ePub
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"Supplies detailed observation instruments that preservice teachers can use when they observe other teachers; offers reflective activities that provide a structure through which beginning teachers can think about their teaching in an insightful, thorough, and productive manner; includes guidelines and instruments for supervisors to use when observing, conferencing with, and assessing beginning or student teachers"--Publisher description.

Teachers Professional Development and the Elementary Mathematics Classroom

Author: Sophia Cohen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113563226X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book illustrates the experiences of elementary school teachers across one year's time as they participated in a teacher development seminar focused on mathematics, and as a result changed their beliefs, their knowledge, and their practices. It explores these experiences as a means of understanding the learning that takes a teacher from a more traditional teaching practice to one that is focused on the ideas and understandings that students and teachers have of the subject matter. The work emerges from and reports on a unique data set from a two-year study of teacher learning that was funded by the Spencer and MacArthur foundations. The teachers, whose work is at the center of this study, were participants in the Developing Mathematical Ideas seminar (DMI), a mathematics teacher development seminar for elementary school teachers. This seminar is one example of intensive, domain-specific professional development. In this seminar teachers study elementary mathematics content to deepen their own understanding of it, they study the development among children of the ideas central to elementary mathematics, and they experience a teaching and learning environment consistent with the pedagogy envisioned by the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics' Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. The seminar is a nationally available teacher development curriculum, thus interested educators can gain access to the resources necessary to offer similar seminars in their own communities. Teachers' Professional Development and the Elementary Mathematics Classroom: Bringing Understandings to Light will be widely interesting to a broad audience, including mathematics teacher educators, teacher education researchers, policymakers, and classroom teachers. It will serve well as a text in a range of graduate courses dealing with teacher cognition/knowledge for teaching, mathematics methods, psychology of learning, and pedagogical theory.

Exploring Probability in School

Author: Graham A. Jones
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387245294
Format: PDF, ePub
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Exploring Probability in School provides a new perspective into research on the teaching and learning of probability. It creates this perspective by recognizing and analysing the special challenges faced by teachers and learners in contemporary classrooms where probability has recently become a mainstream part of the curriculum from early childhood through high school. The authors of the book discuss the nature of probability, look at the meaning of probabilistic literacy, and examine student access to powerful ideas in probability during the elementary, middle, and high school years. Moreover, they assemble and analyse research-based pedagogical knowledge for teachers that can enhance the learning of probability throughout these school years. With the book’s rich application of probability research to classroom practice, it will not only be essential reading for researchers and graduate students involved in probability education; it will also capture the interest of educational policy makers, curriculum personnel, teacher educators, and teachers.

Algebra in the early grades

Author: James J. Kaput
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume is the first to offer a comprehensive, research-based, multi-faceted look at issues in early algebra. In recent years, the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics has recommended that algebra become a strand flowing throughout the K-12 curriculum, and the 2003 RAND Mathematics Study Panel has recommended that algebra be "the initial topical choice for focused and coordinated research and development [in K-12 mathematics]." The book provides a rationale for a stronger and more sustained approach to algebra in school, as well as concrete examples of how algebraic reasoning may be developed in the early grades. It is organized around three themes: *The Nature of Early Algebra *Students' Capacity for Algebraic Thinking *Issues of Implementation: Taking Early Algebra to the Classrooms The contributors to this landmark volume have been at the forefront of an effort to integrate algebra into the existing early grades mathematics curriculum. They include scholars who have been developing the conceptual foundations for such changes as well as researchers and developers who have led empirical investigations in school settings. Algebra in the Early Gradesaims to bridge the worlds of research, practice, design, and theory for educators, researchers, students, policy makers, and curriculum developers in mathematics education.

Mathematical Reasoning

Author: Lyn D. English
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136491147
Format: PDF
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How we reason with mathematical ideas continues to be a fascinating and challenging topic of research--particularly with the rapid and diverse developments in the field of cognitive science that have taken place in recent years. Because it draws on multiple disciplines, including psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, and anthropology, cognitive science provides rich scope for addressing issues that are at the core of mathematical learning. Drawing upon the interdisciplinary nature of cognitive science, this book presents a broadened perspective on mathematics and mathematical reasoning. It represents a move away from the traditional notion of reasoning as "abstract" and "disembodied", to the contemporary view that it is "embodied" and "imaginative." From this perspective, mathematical reasoning involves reasoning with structures that emerge from our bodily experiences as we interact with the environment; these structures extend beyond finitary propositional representations. Mathematical reasoning is imaginative in the sense that it utilizes a number of powerful, illuminating devices that structure these concrete experiences and transform them into models for abstract thought. These "thinking tools"--analogy, metaphor, metonymy, and imagery--play an important role in mathematical reasoning, as the chapters in this book demonstrate, yet their potential for enhancing learning in the domain has received little recognition. This book is an attempt to fill this void. Drawing upon backgrounds in mathematics education, educational psychology, philosophy, linguistics, and cognitive science, the chapter authors provide a rich and comprehensive analysis of mathematical reasoning. New and exciting perspectives are presented on the nature of mathematics (e.g., "mind-based mathematics"), on the array of powerful cognitive tools for reasoning (e.g., "analogy and metaphor"), and on the different ways these tools can facilitate mathematical reasoning. Examples are drawn from the reasoning of the preschool child to that of the adult learner.