Means of Transportation and Registration of Nationality

Author: Vincent P. Cogliati-Bantz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317804511
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book examines the concept of nationality of means of transportation in terms of jurisdiction in international law. It reassesses the definition of nationality and explores how it is conferred. The book first places nationality in the broader perspective of jurisdiction in international law, and examines the historical development and necessity of the nationality of means of transportation. It goes on to investigate whether and under which conditions international organizations may confer a ‘nationality’ on means of transportation, examining the law of the sea conventions and air and space treaties. The book finally explores several questions relating to international registration of means of transportation, building a regime of international registration. Vincent Cogliati-Bantz introduces a necessary distinction between transport internationally registered and transport registered in a State but fulfilling a mission for an international organization. As a work that proposes the ability for international organisations to access international spaces without reliance on State-registered means of transport, this book will be of great use and interest to scholars and students of public international law, international organisations, and maritime, space, and aviation law.

Demilitarization and International Law in Context

Author: Sia Spiliopoulou Åkermark
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351605526
Format: PDF
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The demilitarisation and neutralisation of the Åland Islands is a confirmation of, and an exception to, the collective security system in present-day international affairs. Its core idea is that there is no need for military presence in the territory of the islands and that they are to be kept out of military activities. A restricted use of military force has a confidence building effect in cases where competing interests may be so intense that banning the very presence of military force remains the only viable option. The regime of the Åland Islands is the result of pragmatic and contingent political compromises. As such, the case of the Åland Islands offers an alternative trajectory to the increased militarisation we witness around the world today. Through parliamentary and archival materials, international treaties and academic works, the authors examine the legal rules and institutional structures of the demilitarisation regime. In this process they reassess core concepts of international law and international affairs, such as sovereignty and security, and introduce a theoretical view on the empirical case study of the Åland Islands. The book covers legal, political and policy discursive aspects of demilitarisation, international co-operation, defence and security matters around the Baltic Sea with a broader European and global relevance. It can be a source of inspiration for all those in search of constructive efforts that can address territorial disputes and security challenges.

The Rule of Unwritten International Law

Author: Peter G. Staubach
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351207296
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book seeks to re-appreciate the concept of customary international law as a form of spontaneous societal self-organisation, and to develop the methodological consequences that ensue from this conception for the practice of its application. In pursuing this aim, the author draws from three different strands of scholarship that have not yet been considered in connection with one another: First, general jurisprudential theories of customary law; second, theories of customary international law, especially as they relate to international relations scholarship; and third, methodological approaches to the interpretation of international law. This expansive, philosophical layout of the book enables the author to put the conceptual enigmas of customary international law into a broader perspective. Among the issues discussed in the book are the dichotomy of its traditional and modern forms and the respective benefits and disadvantages of inductive and deductive approaches to its ascertainment. In the course of this analysis, the author draws insights from Friedrich August Hayek’s theory of law as a ‘spontaneous order’, an information-processing device which enables the participants of a legal system to make use of decentralised knowledge. The book argues that the major advantage of custom as a source of international law lies in the fact that it is the result of a gradual process of trial and error, rather than the product of deliberate planning. This makes it a particularly apposite source of law in a time of seismic shifts in the distribution of power within a vastly diverse community of States, when a new global order is expected to emerge, the contours of which are not yet clearly discernible. This book applies general concepts of legal philosophy to explain the continuing relevance of custom as a source of international law while at the same time inferring from this theoretical framework concrete practical and methodological consequences, the most important of which is the special role that purposive interpretation plays with respect to rules of international custom. Given this broad approach, the book will be of interest to several groups of potential readers including academics interested in the philosophy of customary law in general, academic international lawyers and legal practitioners, especially judges, scholars of international relations and all those interested in how the international community of States organises itself.

Armed Conflict and Forcible Displacement

Author: Elena Katselli Proukaki
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317243897
Format: PDF
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This book addresses the involuntary and arbitrary displacement of individuals resulting from armed conflict and gross human rights violations. It shows that forcible displacement constitutes a serious violation of international law and of fundamental community interests. Armed Conflict and Forcible Displacement provides a critical legal analysis of the contemporary international framework, permeating forcible displacement in these circumstances and explores the rights that individuals possess with specific focus on the right not to be displaced and, where this fails, the right to return home and to receive property restitution. In doing so, this volume marries together different fields of international law and builds on the case studies of Cyprus, Colombia, Cambodia and Syria. While the case studies considered here are far from exhaustive, they are either little explored or present significant challenges due to the magnitude of displacement or contested international jurisprudence. Through this analysis, the volume exposes some of the legal challenges that individuals encounter in being protected from forcible displacement, as well as the legal obstacles that persist in ensuring the return of and the recovery of property by the displaced.?It will be of interest to those interested in the fields of international law, human rights law, as well as conflict and war studies.

Routledge Handbook of Regionalism Federalism

Author: John Loughlin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136727698
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Almost all states are either federal or regionalized in some sense. It is difficult to find a state that is entirely unitary and the Routledge Handbook of Regionalism and Federalism necessarily takes in almost the entire world. Both federalism and regionalism have been subjects of a vast academic literature mainly from political science but sometimes also from history, economics, and geography. This cutting edge examination seeks to evaluate the two types of state organization from the perspective of political science producing a work that is analytical rather than simply descriptive. The Handbook presents some of the latest theoretical reflections on regionalism and federalism and then moves on to discuss cases of both regionalism and federalism in key countries chosen from the world’s macro-regions. Assembling this wide range of case studies allows the book to present a general picture of current trends in territorial governance. The final chapters then examine failed federations such as Czechoslovakia and examples of transnational regionalism - the EU, NAFTA and the African Union. Covering evolving forms of federalism and regionalism in all parts of the world and featuring a comprehensive range of case studies by leading international scholars this work will be an essential reference source for all students and scholars of international politics, comparative politics and international relations.

Die Dritthaftung von Klassifikationsgesellschaften

Author: Jürgen Basedow
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161484391
Format: PDF, ePub
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English summary: Classification societies establish and apply technical standards in relation to the design, construction and supervision of ships. Their principal contracting partners are ship builders and ship owners. Increasingly, classification societies are being faced with damage claims initiated by members of the shipping industry with whom they have not established a contractual relationship. Under German law but in a comparative perspective, Jurgen Basedow and Wolfgang Wurmnest examine such third party claims. They focus in particular on how such claims are affected by limitation of liability clauses agreed upon between the classification society and its contracting partners. German description: Klassifikationsgesellschaften sind die technischen Uberwachungsorganisationen der Seeschiffahrt. In jungerer Zeit sind sie verstarkt Anspruchen Dritter ausgesetzt, mit denen sie keine Vertragsbeziehungen unterhalten. Diese Tendenz ist weltweit zu beobachten, wie aktuelle Falle vor englischen, neuseelandischen und US-amerikanischen Gerichten belegen. Dritte versuchen sich vor allem im Anschluss an Schiffskatastrophen, aber auch im Zuge von Schiffsverkaufen, an einer Klassifikationsgesellschaft schadlos zu halten. Jurgen Basedow und Wolfgang Wurmnest untersuchen, welche Anspruche solchen Dritten nach deutschem Recht gegen eine Klassifikationsgesellschaft zustehen und welche Bedeutung hierbei Haftungsbeschrankungen zukommt, die eine Klassifikationsgesellschaft mit ihren Vertragspartnern vereinbart. Somit steht die privatrechtliche Haftung von Klassifikationsgesellschaften im Mittelpunkt dieses Buches; ihre Haftung fur hoheitliches Handeln wird nur am Rande gestreift. Die Autoren arbeiten die Problematik rechtsvergleichend auf und beziehen dabei das australische, englische, franzosische, neuseelandische und US-amerikanische Recht ein. Die von ihnen vertretene Losung steht im Einklang mit dem fein austarierten System der Haftungsverteilung und -beschrankung des internationalen Seerechts, welches massgeblich durch volkerrechtliche Ubereinkommen gepragt wird.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.