Measuring Damages in the Law of Obligations

Author: Sirko Harder
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847315909
Format: PDF
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This book challenges certain differences between contract, tort and equity in relation to the measure (in a broad sense) of damages. Damages are defined as the monetary award made by a court in consequence of a breach of contract, a tort or an equitable wrong. In all these causes of action, damages usually aim to put the claimant into the position the claimant would be in without the wrong. Even though the main objective of damages is thus the same for each cause of action, their measure is not. While some aspects of the measure of damages are more or less harmonised between contract, tort and equity (e.g. causation in fact and mitigation), significant differences exist in relation to (1) remoteness of damage, which is the question of whether, when and to which degree damage needs to be foreseeable to be recoverable; (2) the compensability of non-pecuniary loss such as pain and suffering, distress and loss of reputation; (3) the effect of contributory negligence, which is the victim's contribution to the occurrence of the wrong or the ensuing loss through unreasonable conduct prior to the wrong; (4) the circumstances under which victims of wrongs can claim the gain the wrongdoer has made from the wrong; and (5) the availability and scope of exemplary (or punitive) damages. For each of the five topics, this book examines the present position in contract, tort and equity and establishes the differences between the three areas. It goes on to scrutinise the arguments in defence of existing differences. The conclusion on each topic is that the present differences between contract, tort and equity cannot be justified on merits and should be removed through a harmonisation of the relevant principles.

Remedies in Australian Private Law

Author: Katy Barnett
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107610834
Format: PDF
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Remedies in Australian Private Law offers a clear, logical and complete treatment of remedies in common law, equity and statute. Designed in response to the rapid expansion of interest in this field of law, this book provides readers with a theoretical and practical framework for understanding the principles of private law remedies and how they are applied. Clearly structured with a strong black-letter law focus, this book includes detailed coverage of remedies for tort, breach of contract, the Australian Consumer Law and equitable obligations. It also includes discussion of theoretical perspectives on issues such as the fusion of common law and equity, the nature of reasonable fee awards and the concept of unjust enrichment. The systematic and accessible approach set out in this book will enable students, practitioners and others to develop an overarching conception of remedial law, and thereby enhance their capacity to analyse legal problems and find the best solutions.

The Recovery of Non Pecuniary Loss in European Contract Law

Author: Vernon V. Palmer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316300684
Format: PDF, ePub
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This is the first comprehensive work to capture the rise of moral damages (non-pecuniary loss) in European contract law through a historical and comparative analysis. Unique features of this study include the first classification scheme of the systems into liberal, moderate and conservative regimes, a taxonomy of non-pecuniary loss drawn from a European-wide jurisprudence, and a comprehensive bibliography of the subject. Written by a leading academic on comparative law, Palmer's precise and practical insights on Europe's leading cases will be of great interest to academic researchers and practitioners alike.

Principles Definitions and Model Rules of European Private Law

Author: Study Group on a European Civil Code
Publisher: sellier. european law publ.
ISBN: 3866530978
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Draft of a Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) is based in part on a revised version of the Principles of European Contract Law (PECL) and contains Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private Law. A year ago, an interim outline edition of the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) was published by sellier. european law publishers (Germany). It covered the books on contracts and other juridical acts, obligations and corresponding rights, certain specific contracts, and non-contractual obligations. One purpose of the text was to provide material for a possible "political" Common Frame of Reference (CFR) which was called for by the European Commission's Action Plan on a More Coherent European Contract Law of January 2003. Now available for the first time is the final outline edition of the DCFR. This final outline edition covers major new topics and includes a revised and expanded list of definitions. This revision of the interim outline edition takes public discussion into account and also contains an additional section on the principles underlying the model rules. In late 2009, the six-volume full edition of the DCFR, including all comments and notes, will be published.

Contract Damages

Author: Djakhongir Saidov
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847317111
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book is a collection of essays examining the remedy of contract damages in the common law and under the international contract law instruments such as the Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International Sales of Goods and the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts. The essays, written by leading experts in the area, raise important and topical issues relating to the law of contract damages from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The book aims to inform readers of current developments, problems, trends and debates surrounding contract damages and reflects an ongoing dialogue on damages among representatives of common law, civil law, mixed and trans-national legal systems. The general issues addressed in the collection include the purpose and scope of damages, the measures of damages, recoverability of losses, methods of limiting damages and the assessment of damages. A special emphasis is placed on the examination of the role of gain-based damages, the meaning and definition of loss, the recoverability of damages for injury to business reputation, the recoverability of legal fees, the rules of mitigation and foreseeability, the dilemma between the 'abstract' and 'concrete' approaches to the calculation of damagesand the relationship between changes in monetary value and the assessment of damages.

An Introduction to the Law of Restitution

Author: Peter Birks
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198760740
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This new edition of a landmark study of the law of restitution has been substantially revised and updated. Concentrating on structural principles rather than detailed rules, the book is an invaluable guide to this difficult area of law.

The Margin of Appreciation

Author: Steven C. Greer
Publisher: Council of Europe
ISBN: 9287143501
Format: PDF, Docs
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The term 'margin of appreciation' has been used for some time to refer to the room for manoeuvre that the Strasbourg institutions are prepared to accord national authorities in fulfilling some of their principal obligations under the European Convention for Human Rights. This document proposes how the meaning of the term may be given greater clarity, coherence and consistency.

Medical Device Regulations

Author: Michael Cheng
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9241546182
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The term 'medical devices' covers a wide range of equipment essential for patient care at every level of the health service, whether at the bedside, at a health clinic or in a large specialised hospital. Yet many countries lack access to high-quality devices, particularly in developing countries where health technology assessments are rare and there is a lack of regulatory controls to prevent the use of substandard devices. This publication provides a guidance framework for countries wishing to create or modify their own regulatory systems for medical devices, based on best practice experience in other countries. Issues highlighted include: the need for harmonised regulations; and the adoption, where appropriate, of device approvals of advanced regulatory systems to avoid an unnecessary drain on scarce resources. These approaches allow emphasis to be placed on locally-assessed needs, including vendor and device registration, training and surveillance and information exchange systems.