Measuring the Mind

Author: Denny Borsboom
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139444637
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Is it possible to measure psychological attributes like intelligence, personality and attitudes and if so, how does that work? What does the term 'measurement' mean in a psychological context? This fascinating and timely book discusses these questions and investigates the possible answers that can be given response. Denny Borsboom provides an in-depth treatment of the philosophical foundations of widely used measurement models in psychology. The theoretical status of classical test theory, latent variable theory and positioned in terms of the underlying philosophy of science. Special attention is devoted to the central concept of test validity and future directions to improve the theory and practice of psychological measurement are outlined.

Psychologische Tests und mehrwertige Logik

Author: Matthias Buntins
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658055073
Format: PDF, Docs
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​Matthias Buntins befasst sich mit der Entwicklung eines testtheoretischen Ansatzes, welcher ohne das Konzept der Messung auskommt. Das wesentliche Ergebnis ist eine rationale Rekonstruktion des Testvorgangs als logische Inferenz: Testergebnisse werden nicht als Messwerte interpretiert, sondern als das Ausmaß, in welchem abstrakte Eigenschaftsbegriffe auf bestimmte Personen zutreffen. Durch die konsequente Verwendung formaler (insbesondere mehrwertiger) Schlusssysteme eröffnet der Ansatz neue Lösungen für bestehende testtheoretische Probleme und liefert zugleich konkrete Implikationen für die Praxis der Testkonstruktion und Testauswertung.​

Interdisziplin re Vernetzung in der Lehre

Author: Hardy Frehe
Publisher: Narr Francke Attempto Verlag
ISBN: 3823379070
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Über Interdisziplinarität wird in der Wissenschaft und in der Öffentlichkeit angeregt diskutiert. Dabei wird jedoch zumeist auf Interdisziplinarität in der Forschung abgehoben, während Interdisziplinarität in der Lehre kaum Beachtung findet. Der vorliegende Sammelband nimmt sich mit Blick auf drei Felder - Vielfalt in der Lehre, Kompetenz- und Organisationsentwicklung - diesem Thema an und schließt somit eine Lücke in der Literatur- und Forschungslandschaft. Dieses Buch geht zurück auf die Fachtagung "Interdisziplinäre Vernetzung: Ziele, Herausforderungen, Synergien", die 2014 an der Technischen Universität Darmstadt stattfand. Sie stand in Zusammenhang mit dem Projekt "Kompetenzentwicklung durch interdisziplinäre Vernetzung von Anfang an" (KIVA), das eine Verbesserung von Studienbedingungen und mehr Qualität in der Lehre zum Ziel hat.

Lineare Strukturgleichungsmodelle

Author: Holger Steinmetz
Publisher: Rainer Hampp Verlag
ISBN: 3957101492
Format: PDF, Docs
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Lineare Strukturgleichungsmodelle sind aus der verhaltenswissenschaftlichen Forschung nicht mehr wegzudenken. Sie sind ein nützliches Werkzeug, um Hypothesen über Beziehungen zwischen Variablen zu prüfen und - mehr noch - Implikationen kausaler Strukturen zu testen. In diesem Buch werden Grundlagen, Hintergründe und die Vorgehensweisen bei der Spezifizierung von Kausalmodellen diskutiert. Dies wird an einem empirischen Beispiel und unter Verwendung des lavaan-Pakets innerhalb der Software R illustriert. Der Schwerpunkt des Buchs liegt hierbei weniger auf methodischen und statistischen Aspekten eines Modells, sondern auf der adäquaten Übersetzung der theoretischen Vorstellungen in ein Modell. Ein besonderer Stellenwert wird dem Verständnis der kausalen Implikationen von Modellen, der theoretische Bedeutung von Variablen, der Diagnostik einer Fehlanpassung an die Daten und modernen Konzepten wie dem Instrumentalvariablen-Ansatz aus der Ökonometrie und dem d-separation-Konzept, eingeräumt. Somit bietet das Buch sowohl einen Einstieg für Anfänger/innen als auch interessante Inhalte für Fortgeschrittene. Holger Steinmetz ist wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Lehrstuhl für International Business Studies der Universität Paderborn.

Frontiers of Test Validity Theory

Author: Keith A. Markus
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135055866
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book examines test validity in the behavioral, social, and educational sciences by exploring three fundamental problems: measurement, causation and meaning. Psychometric and philosophical perspectives receive attention along with unresolved issues. The authors explore how measurement is conceived from both the classical and modern perspectives. The importance of understanding the underlying concepts as well as the practical challenges of test construction and use receive emphasis throughout. The book summarizes the current state of the test validity theory field. Necessary background on test theory and statistics is presented as a conceptual overview where needed. Each chapter begins with an overview of key material reviewed in previous chapters, concludes with a list of suggested readings, and features boxes with examples that connect theory to practice. These examples reflect actual situations that occurred in psychology, education, and other disciplines in the US and around the globe, bringing theory to life. Critical thinking questions related to the boxed material engage and challenge readers. A few examples include: What is the difference between intelligence and IQ? Can people disagree on issues of value but agree on issues of test validity? Is it possible to ask the same question in two different languages? The first part of the book contrasts theories of measurement as applied to the validity of behavioral science measures.The next part considers causal theories of measurement in relation to alternatives such as behavior domain sampling, and then unpacks the causal approach in terms of alternative theories of causation.The final section explores the meaning and interpretation of test scores as it applies to test validity. Each set of chapters opens with a review of the key theories and literature and concludes with a review of related open questions in test validity theory. Researchers, practitioners and policy makers interested in test validity or developing tests appreciate the book's cutting edge review of test validity. The book also serves as a supplement in graduate or advanced undergraduate courses on test validity, psychometrics, testing or measurement taught in psychology, education, sociology, social work, political science, business, criminal justice and other fields. The book does not assume a background in measurement.

Handbook of Automated Essay Evaluation

Author: Mark D. Shermis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136334793
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This comprehensive, interdisciplinary handbook reviews the latest methods and technologies used in automated essay evaluation (AEE) methods and technologies. Highlights include the latest in the evaluation of performance-based writing assessments and recent advances in the teaching of writing, language testing, cognitive psychology, and computational linguistics. This greatly expanded follow-up to Automated Essay Scoring reflects the numerous advances that have taken place in the field since 2003 including automated essay scoring and diagnostic feedback. Each chapter features a common structure including an introduction and a conclusion. Ideas for diagnostic and evaluative feedback are sprinkled throughout the book. Highlights of the book’s coverage include: The latest research on automated essay evaluation. Descriptions of the major scoring engines including the E-rater®, the Intelligent Essay Assessor, the IntellimetricTM Engine, c-raterTM, and LightSIDE. Applications of the uses of the technology including a large scale system used in West Virginia. A systematic framework for evaluating research and technological results. Descriptions of AEE methods that can be replicated for languages other than English as seen in the example from China. Chapters from key researchers in the field. The book opens with an introduction to AEEs and a review of the "best practices" of teaching writing along with tips on the use of automated analysis in the classroom. Next the book highlights the capabilities and applications of several scoring engines including the E-rater®, the Intelligent Essay Assessor, the IntellimetricTM engine, c-raterTM, and LightSIDE. Here readers will find an actual application of the use of an AEE in West Virginia, psychometric issues related to AEEs such as validity, reliability, and scaling, and the use of automated scoring to detect reader drift, grammatical errors, discourse coherence quality, and the impact of human rating on AEEs. A review of the cognitive foundations underlying methods used in AEE is also provided. The book concludes with a comparison of the various AEE systems and speculation about the future of the field in light of current educational policy. Ideal for educators, professionals, curriculum specialists, and administrators responsible for developing writing programs or distance learning curricula, those who teach using AEE technologies, policy makers, and researchers in education, writing, psychometrics, cognitive psychology, and computational linguistics, this book also serves as a reference for graduate courses on automated essay evaluation taught in education, computer science, language, linguistics, and cognitive psychology.

Dynamic Process Methodology in the Social and Developmental Sciences

Author: Jaan Valsiner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387959221
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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All psychological processes—like biological and social ones—are dynamic. Phenomena of nature, society, and the human psyche are context bound, constantly changing, and variable. This feature of reality is often not recognized in the social sciences where we operate with averaged data and with homogeneous stereotypes, and consider our consistency to be the cornerstone of rational being. Yet we are all inconsistent in our actions within a day, or from, one day to the next, and much of such inconsistency is of positive value for our survival and development. Our inconsistent behaviors and thoughts may appear chaotic, yet there is generality within this highly variable dynamic. The task of scientific methodologies—qualitative and quantitative—is to find out what that generality is. It is the aim of this handbook to bring into one framework various directions of construction of methodology of the dynamic processes that exist in the social sciences at the beginning of the 21st century. This handbook is set up to bring together pertinent methodological scholarship from all over the world, and equally from the quantitative and qualitative orientations to methodology. In addition to consolidating the pertinent knowledge base for the purposes of its further growth, this book serves the major educational role of bringing practitioners—students, researchers, and professionals interested in applications—the state of the art know-how about how to think about extracting evidence from single cases, and about the formal mathematical-statistical tools to use for these purposes.