Meditations on First Philosophy

Author: René Descartes
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191604941
Format: PDF, Kindle
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'It is some years now since I realized how many false opinions I had accepted as true from childhood onwards...I saw that at some stage in my life the whole structure would have to be utterly demolished' In Descartes's Meditations, one of the key texts of Western philosophy, the thinker rejects all his former beliefs in the quest for new certainties. Discovering his own existence as a thinking entity in the very exercise of doubt, he goes on to prove the existence of God, who guarantees his clear and distinct ideas as a means of access to the truth. He develops new conceptions of body and mind, capable of serving as foundations for the new science of nature. Subsequent philosophy has grappled with Descartes's legacy, questioning many of its conclusions and even his basic approach, but his arguments set the agenda for many of the greatest philosophical thinkers, and their fascination endures. This new translation includes the Third and Fourth Objections and Replies in full, and a selection from the rest of these exchanges with Descartes's contemporaries that helped to expound his philosophy. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

Betrachtungen ber die Grundlagen der Philosophie

Author: Rene Descartes
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3738613935
Format: PDF, Mobi
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René Descartes (* 31. März 1596 in La Haye en Touraine; † 11. Februar 1650 in Stockholm) war ein französischer Philosoph, Mathematiker und Naturwissenschaftler. Descartes gilt als der Begründer des modernen frühneuzeitlichen Rationalismus, den Baruch de Spinoza, Nicolas Malebranche und Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz kritisch-konstruktiv weitergeführt haben. Sein rationalistisches Denken wird auch Cartesianismus genannt. Von ihm stammt das berühmte Dictum „cogito ergo sum“ („Ich denke, also bin ich.“), welches die Grundlage seiner Metaphysik bildet, aber auch das Selbstbewusstsein als genuin philosophisches Thema eingeführt hat. Seine Auffassung bezüglich der Existenz zweier miteinander wechselwirkender, voneinander verschiedener „Substanzen“ – Geist und Materie – ist heute als cartesianischer Dualismus bekannt und steht im Gegensatz zu den verschiedenen Varianten des Monismus sowie zur dualistischen Naturphilosophie Isaac Newtons, der die Wechselwirkung aktiver immaterieller „Kräfte der Natur“ mit der absolut passiven Materie lehrt (siehe dazu newtonsche Gesetze, Erstes Gesetz der Bewegung). (aus

The Oxford Handbook of Montaigne

Author: Philippe Desan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190215348
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In 1580, Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) published a book unique by its title and its content: Essays"R. A literary genre was born. At first sight, the Essays resemble a patchwork of personal reflections, but they engage with questions that animate the human mind, and tend toward a single goal: to live better in the present and to prepare for death. For this reason, Montaigne's thought and writings have been a subject of enduring interest across disciplines. This Handbook brings together essays by prominent scholars that examine Montaigne's literary, philosophical, and political contributions, and assess his legacy and relevance today in a global perspective. The chapters of this Handbook offer a sweeping study of Montaigne across different disciplines and in a global perspective. One section covers the historical Montaigne, situating his thought in his own time and space, notably the Wars of Religion in France. The political, historical and religious context of Montaigne's Essays requires a rigorous presentation to inform the modern reader of the issues and problems that confronted Montaigne and his contemporaries in his own time. In addition to this contextual approach to Montaigne, the Handbook also establishes a connection between Montaigne's writings and issues and problems directly relevant to our modern times, that is to say, our age of global ideology. Montaigne's considerations, or essays, offer a point of departure for the modern reader's own assessments. The Essays analyze what can be broadly defined as human nature, the endless process by which the individual tries to impose opinions upon others through the production of laws, policies or philosophies. Montaigne's motto -- "What do I know?" -- is a simple question yet one of perennial significance. One could argue that reading Montaigne today teaches us that the angle defines the world we see, or, as Montaigne wrote: "What matters is not merely that we see the thing, but how we see it."


Author: Simon Blackburn
ISBN: 9783863120511
Format: PDF, Docs
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Author: Thomas Hardy
Publisher: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag
ISBN: 3423416351
Format: PDF
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Der große Schicksalsroman Durch Zufall erfährt die in ärmlichen Verhältnissen lebende Tess Durbeyfield, dass ihre Familie einem alten normannischen Adelsgeschlecht entstammt. Ihr Entschluss, vermeintliche Verwandte zu besuchen, hat fatale Folgen für die junge Frau: Sie trifft auf die zwei Männer, die den Gang ihres Schicksals unheilvoll lenken. Mit Tess sorgte Thomas Hardy 1891 für Aufsehen. Der Roman zählt zu den großen Klassikern der englischen Literatur. Diese Neuausgabe in attraktiver Sonderausstattung bietet die zeitgemäße Übersetzung von Helga Schulz.

Coherentism Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Author: Oxford University Press
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780199808700
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of social work find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Philosophy, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study Philosophy. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit