Merit

Author: Joseph F. Kett
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801467667
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The idea that citizens' advancement should depend exclusively on merit, on qualities that deserve reward rather than on bloodlines or wire-pulling, was among the Founding ideals of the American republic, Joseph F. Kett argues in this provocative and engaging book. Merit's history, he contends, is best understood within the context of its often conflicting interaction with the other ideals of the Founding, equal rights and government by consent. Merit implies difference; equality suggests sameness. By sanctioning selection of those lower down by those higher up, merit potentially conflicts with the republican ideal that citizens consent to the decisions that affect their lives. In Merit, which traces the history of its subject over three centuries, Kett asserts that Americans have reconciled merit with other principles of the Founding in ways that have shaped their distinctive approach to the grading of public schools, report cards, the forging of workplace hierarchies, employee rating forms, merit systems in government, the selection of officers for the armed forces, and standardized testing for intelligence, character, and vocational interests. Today, the concept of merit is most commonly associated with measures by which it is quantified. Viewing their merit as an element of their selfhood-essential merit-members of the Founding generation showed no interest in quantitative measurements. Rather, they equated merit with an inner quality that accounted for their achievements and that was best measured by their reputations among their peers. In a republic based on equal rights and consent of the people, however, it became important to establish that merit-based rewards were within the grasp of ordinary Americans. In response, Americans embraced institutional merit in the form of procedures focused on drawing small distinctions among average people. They also developed a penchant for increasing the number of winners in competitions-what Kett calls "selection in" rather than "selection out"-in order to satisfy popular aspirations. Kett argues that values rooted in the Founding of the republic continue to influence Americans' approach to controversies, including those surrounding affirmative action, which involve the ideal of merit.

Cengage Advantage Series The Enduring Vision A History of the American People

Author: Paul Boyer
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1285193393
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Developed to meet the demand for a low-cost, high-quality history book, this text is an economically priced version of THE ENDURING VISION, Eighth Edition (©2014). The Advantage Edition offers readers the complete narrative while limiting the number of photos, tables, and maps. Its engaging presentation integrates political, social, and cultural history within a chronological framework. Known for its focus on the environment and the land, the text is also praised for its innovative coverage of cultural history, public health and medicine, and the West-including Native American history. The eighth edition incorporates new scholarship throughout, includes a variety of new photos, and brings the discussion fully up to date with coverage of the 2012 presidential campaign. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

The Schooled Society

Author: David Baker
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804790485
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Only 150 years ago, the majority of the world's population was largely illiterate. Today, not only do most people over fifteen have basic reading and writing skills, but 20 percent of the population attends some form of higher education. What are the effects of such radical, large-scale change? David Baker argues that the education revolution has transformed our world into a schooled society—that is, a society that is actively created and defined by education. Drawing on neo-institutionalism, The Schooled Society shows how mass education interjects itself and its ideologies into culture at large: from the dynamics of social mobility, to how we measure intelligence, to the values we promote. The proposition that education is a primary rather than a "reactive" institution is then tested by examining the degree to which education has influenced other large-scale social forces, such as the economy, politics, and religion. Rich, groundbreaking, and globally-oriented, The Schooled Society sheds light on how mass education has dramatically altered the face of society and human life.

The Enduring Vision A History of the American People Volume II Since 1865

Author: Paul Boyer
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1133945228
Format: PDF, ePub
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THE ENDURING VISION’s engaging narrative integrates political, social, and cultural history within a chronological framework. Known for its focus on the environment and the land, the text is also praised for its innovative coverage of cultural history, public health and medicine, and the West--including Native American history. The eighth edition incorporates new scholarship throughout, includes a variety of new photos, and brings the discussion fully up to date with coverage of the 2012 presidential campaign. Based on the popularity of the Going to the Source feature, which was introduced in the previous edition, additional Going to the Source selections are offered online in the eighth edition. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

The Enduring Vision A History of the American People

Author: Paul S. Boyer
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1305861663
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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THE ENDURING VISION's engaging narrative integrates political, social, and cultural history within a chronological framework. Known for its focus on the environment and the land, Boyer, et al's text is also praised for its innovative coverage of cultural history, public health and medicine, and the American West -- including Native American history. The ninth edition maintains these strengths while enhancing coverage of women's history and incorporating new scholarship. A thoroughly redesigned last chapter discusses topics such as income inequality and mass incarceration, while bringing the discussion up to date with coverage of the 2016 presidential campaign. The ninth edition also incorporates new features that support learning. Each section begins with a historical question; new conclusions include summaries organized around each of the chapter questions. Available in the following split options: THE ENDURING VISION, 9th Edition Complete, Volume 1: To 1877, and Volume 2: Since 1865. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Revolutionary Brotherhood

Author: Steven C. Bullock
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 0807899852
Format: PDF, ePub
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In the first comprehensive history of the fraternity known to outsiders primarily for its secrecy and rituals, Steven Bullock traces Freemasonry through its first century in America. He follows the order from its origins in Britain and its introduction into North America in the 1730s to its near-destruction by a massive anti-Masonic movement almost a century later and its subsequent reconfiguration into the brotherhood we know today. With a membership that included Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, Paul Revere, and Andrew Jackson, Freemasonry is fascinating in its own right, but Bullock also places the movement at the center of the transformation of American society and culture from the colonial era to the rise of Jacksonian democracy. Using lodge records, members' reminiscences and correspondence, and local and Masonic histories, Bullock links Freemasonry with the changing ideals of early American society. Although the fraternity began among colonial elites, its spread during the Revolution and afterward allowed it to play an important role in shaping the new nation's ideas of liberty and equality. Ironically, however, the more inclusive and universalist Masonic ideas became, the more threatening its members' economic and emotional bonds seemed to outsiders, sparking an explosive attack on the fraternity after 1826. American History

For the Common Good

Author: Charles Dorn
Publisher: American Institutions and Soci
ISBN: 9780801452345
Format: PDF, Docs
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In For the Common Good, Charles Dorn challenges the rhetoric of America's so-called crisis in higher education by investigating two centuries of college and university history.

A People s History of the United States

Author: Howard Zinn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317325303
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This is a new edition of the radical social history of America from Columbus to the present. This powerful and controversial study turns orthodox American history upside down to portray the social turmoil behind the "march of progress". Known for its lively, clear prose as well as its scholarly research, A People's History is the only volume to tell America's story from the point of view of - and in the words of - America's women, factory workers, African-Americans, Native Americans, the working poor, and immigrant laborers. As historian Howard Zinn shows, many of America's greatest battles - the fights for fair wage, an eight-hour workday, child-labor laws, health and safety standards, universal suffrage, women's rights, racial equality - were carried out at the grassroots level, against bloody resistance. Covering Christopher Columbus's arrival through the Clinton years A People's History of the United States, which was nominated for the American Book Award in 1981, is an insightful analysis of the most important events in US history.

Racecraft The Soul of Inequality in American Life

Author: Karen Fields
Publisher: Verso Books
ISBN: 1844679942
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The election of Barack Obama was supposed to herald the dawn of a post-racial age in America—a meaningless term without a grasp of what "racial" means. Most people assume that racism grows from the perception of human difference: the fact of race gives rise to the practice of racism. In this myth-busting reflection, the sociologist Karen E. Fields and the historian Barbara J. Fields argue the opposite: the practice of racism produces the illusion of race, through what they call racecraft. And racecraft is intimately entwined with other forms of inequality in American life. So pervasive are the devices of racecraft in American history, economic doctrine, politics, and everyday thinking that the presence of racecraft itself goes unnoticed. That the post-racial age has not dawned, the Fieldses argue, reflects the failure of Americans to develop a legitimate language for thinking about and discussing inequality across the board. That failure should worry all who care about democratic institutions.