Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes

Author: Yaoliang Tang
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128004975
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes are at the forefront of research in two of the most high profile and funded scientific areas – cardiovascular research and stem cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes provides insight into the biofunction and molecular mechanisms, practical tools for research, and a look toward the clinical applications of this exciting phenomenon which is emerging as an effective diagnostic. Primarily focused on the cardiovascular applications where there have been the greatest advancements toward the clinic, this is the first compendium for clinical and biomedical researchers who are interested in integrating MSC-derived exosomes as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Introduces the MSC-exosome mediated cell-cell communication Covers the major functional benefits in current MSC-derived exosome studies Discusses strategies for the use of MSC-derived exosomes in cardiovascular therapies

Exosomes Stem Cells and MicroRNA

Author: Karl L. Mettinger
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319744704
Format: PDF, ePub
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This volume provides insight into the pivotal roles of stem cells, exosomes and other microvesicles in biofunction and molecular mechanisms and their therapeutic potential in translational nanomedicine. It further highlights evidence from recent studies as to how stem cell derived exosomes and microRNAs may restore and maintain tissue homeostasis, enable cells to recover critical cellular functions and begin repair regeneration. These early studies in animal models of aging also show evidence of improved immune, cardiovascular and cognitive functions as well as improved health span and life span. The use of exosomes from body fluids to define specific biomarkers for various tumors may also clear the path to patient-targeted treatments by developing exosome-derived microRNA based cancer therapeutics. It is essential reading for graduate students, research fellow and biomedical researchers in academia or the pharmaceutical or biotech industries.

Genetics of Stem Cells

Author: Yaoliang Tang
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123984599
Format: PDF
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This special volume of Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science focuses on the genetics of stem cells. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

Biostatistics for Medical and Biomedical Practitioners

Author: Julien I. E. Hoffman
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128026073
Format: PDF, Docs
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Biostatistics for Practitioners: An Interpretative Guide for Medicine and Biology deals with several aspects of statistics that are indispensable for researchers and students across the biomedical sciences. The book features a step-by-step approach, focusing on standard statistical tests, as well as discussions of the most common errors. The book is based on the author’s 40+ years of teaching statistics to medical fellows and biomedical researchers across a wide range of fields. Discusses how to use the standard statistical tests in the biomedical field, as well as how to make statistical inferences (t test, ANOVA, regression etc.) Includes non-standards tests, including equivalence or non-inferiority testing, extreme value statistics, cross-over tests, and simple time series procedures such as the runs test and Cusums Introduces procedures such as multiple regression, Poisson regression, meta-analysis and resampling statistics, and provides references for further studies

Exosomes and Microvesicles

Author: Andrew F. Hill
Publisher: Humana Press
ISBN: 9781493967261
Format: PDF, ePub
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This volume covers methods for the analysis of extracellular vesicles (EV) that can be applied to isolated EVs from a wide variety of sources. This includes the use of electron microscopy, tunable resistance pulse sensing, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. The chapters in this book discuss EV cargoes containing proteins and genomic materials using a number of different approaches, and isolating EVs from platelets and neuronal cells and tissues. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Practical and comprehensive, Exosomes and Microvesicles: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource containing methodologies for anyone interested in researching EVs.

Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Ischemic Stroke Fashion or Future

Author: Thorsten R. Doeppner
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889197247
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Stroke remains one of the most devastating diseases in industrialized countries. Recanalization of the occluded arterial vessel using thrombolysis is the only causal therapy available. However, thrombolysis is limited due to severe side effects and a limited time window. As such, only a minority of patients receives this kind of therapy, showing a need for new and innovative treatment strategies. Although neuroprotective drugs have been shown to be beneficial in a variety of experimental stroke models, they ultimately failed in clinical trials. Consequently, recent scientific focus has been put on modulation of post-ischemic neuroregeneration, either via stimulation of endogenous neurogenesis or via application of exogenous stem cells or progenitor cells. Neurogenesis persists within the adult brain of both rodents and primates. As such, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are found within distinct niches like the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Cerebral ischemia stimulates these astrocyte-like progenitor cells, upon which NPCs proliferate and migrate towards the site of lesion. There, NPCs partly differentiate into mature neurons, without significantly being integrated into the residing neural network. Rather, the majority of new-born cells dies within the first weeks post-stroke, leaving post-ischemic neurogenesis a phenomenon of unknown biological significance. Since NPCs do not replace lost brain tissue, beneficial effects observed in some studies after either stimulated or protected neurogenesis are generally contributed to indirect effects of these new-born cells. The precise identification of appropriated cellular mediators, however, is still elusive. How do these mediators work? Are they soluble factors or maybe even vesicular structures emanating from NPCs? What are the cues that guide NPCs towards the ischemic lesion site? How can post-ischemic neurogenesis be stimulated? How can the poor survival of NPCs be increased? In order to support post-ischemic neurogenesis, a variety of research groups have focused on application of exogenous stem/progenitor cells from various tissue sources. Among these, cultivated NPCs from the SVZ and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the bone marrow are frequently administered after induction of stroke. Although neuroprotection after delivery of stem/progenitor cells has been shown in various experimental stroke models, transplanted cells are usually not integrated in the neural network. Again, the vast amount of grafted cells dies or does not reach its target despite profound neuroprotection, also suggesting indirect paracrine effects as the cause of neuroprotection. Yet, the factors being responsible for these observations are under debate and still have to be addressed. Is there any “optimal” cell type for transplantation? How can the resistance of grafted cells against a non-favorable extracellular milieu be increased? What are the molecules that are vital for interaction between grafted cells and endogenous NPCs? The present research topic seeks to answer - at least in part - some of the aforementioned questions. Although the research topic predominantly focuses on experimental studies (and reviews alike), a current outlook towards clinical relevance is given as well.

Regenerative Medicine Laboratory to Clinic

Author: Asok Mukhopadhyay
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811037019
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book discusses the two different cellular approaches that are pursued in regenerative medicine: cell therapy and tissue engineering. It examines in detail the therapeutic application of hematopoietic stem cells in marrow regeneration, multi-potent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also referred to as mesenchymal stromal cells. The interest in MSCs can be seen in more than 150 clinical trials, some of which have progressed to Phase III, despite the cells’ limited differentiation potential. The book also explores how embryonic stem (ES) cells, being pluripotent in nature, can resolve some of the problems associated with adult stem cells, yet entail other challenges like risks of teratoma formation and immune rejection. A separate chapter deals with the role of noncoding RNAs in neuronal commitment of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Chapters like “Cord blood banking in India and the global scenario”; “3D bioprinting of tissue” and others will make this book an extremely interesting read for all students, researchers and clinicians working in the area of regenerative medicine/stem cells. The book is broadly divided into two parts, the first of which is devoted to basic information on stem cells, and the second of which addresses potential clinical applications in the areas of hematology, cardiology, orthopedic and immune suppression, etc.

Introduction to Cell Biology

Author: John K Young
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9813100869
Format: PDF
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This book is intended to be an accessible introduction to the cell biology of mammalian cells for junior or senior undergraduate students who have already had an introduction to biological sciences. This engaging and stimulating text focuses on current controversies in cell biology. To solve these puzzles, the reader will learn how to answer a number of fundamental yet hard-hitting questions in the field. He or she is thus able to approach the subject with the right scientific attitude and build a firm foundation of understanding. Basic features of mammalian cells — secretion, division, motility, cell-cell interactions — are described using up-to-date references to the most current scientific literature. The text is well illustrated with clearly understandable diagrams and numerous micrographs of cells. This text will enable non-specialists to acquire a better understanding of current issues in mammalian cell biology.

Neuroimmune Pharmacology

Author: Tsuneya Ikezu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319440225
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The second edition of Neuroimmune Pharmacology bridges the disciplines of neuroscience, immunology and pharmacology from the molecular to clinical levels with particular thought made to engage new research directives and clinical modalities. Bringing together the foremost field authorities from around the world, Neuroimmune Pharmacology will serve as an invaluable resource for the basic and applied scientists of the current decade and beyond.