Metaphysics of Science

Author: Markus Schrenk
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317273052
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Metaphysics and science have a long but troubled relationship. In the twentieth century the Logical Positivists argued metaphysics was irrelevant and that philosophy should be guided by science. However, metaphysics and science attempt to answer many of the same, fundamental questions: What are laws of nature? What is causation? What are natural kinds? In this book, Markus Schrenk examines and explains the central questions and problems in the metaphysics of science. He reviews the development of the field from the early modern period through to the latest research, systematically assessing key topics including: dispositions counterfactual conditionals laws of nature causation properties natural kinds essence necessity. With the addition of chapter summaries and annotated further reading, Metaphysics of Science is a much-needed, clear and informative survey of this exciting area of philosophical research. It is essential reading for students and scholars of philosophy of science and metaphysics.

A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

Author: John Losee
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This new edition brings up to date this accessible study of the philosophy of science. Since the time of Plato and Aristotle, scientists and philosophers have raised questions about the proper evaluation of scientific interpretations.A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Scienceis an exposition of differing viewpoints on issues such as the distinction between scientific inquiry and other types of interpretation, the relationship between theories and observation reports; the evaluation of competing theories; and the nature of progress in science. The author makes accessible the philosophy of science to readers who may not have extensive knowledge of formal logic or the history of the several sciences. The third edition incorporates an extended discussion of recent developments. Historicist critics of Logical Empiricism have established that evaluative standards and cognitive aims have changed within the history of science. This edition examines these changes, the recent controversies over scientific realism, casual theories of explanation, Bayesian theories of confirmation, and the search for a non-prescriptive philosophy of science. philosophers have raised questions about the proper evaluation of scientific interpretations. This is a lucid and accessible introduction to the philosophy of science, ideal for readers who may not have the extensive knowledge of formal logic or the history of the several sciences. This new edition includes an extended discussion of such recent developments and controversies as new approaches to evaluative standards and cognitive aims, scientific realism, causal theories of explanation, Bayesian theories of confirmation, and the search for a non-prescriptive philosophy of science.

General Philosophy of Science Focal Issues

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080548548
Format: PDF, Docs
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Scientists use concepts and principles that are partly specific for their subject matter, but they also share part of them with colleagues working in different fields. Compare the biological notion of a 'natural kind' with the general notion of 'confirmation' of a hypothesis by certain evidence. Or compare the physical principle of the 'conservation of energy' and the general principle of 'the unity of science'. Scientists agree that all such notions and principles aren't as crystal clear as one might wish. An important task of the philosophy of the special sciences, such as philosophy of physics, of biology and of economics, to mention only a few of the many flourishing examples, is the clarification of such subject specific concepts and principles. Similarly, an important task of 'general' philosophy of science is the clarification of concepts like 'confirmation' and principles like 'the unity of science'. It is evident that clarfication of concepts and principles only makes sense if one tries to do justice, as much as possible, to the actual use of these notions by scientists, without however following this use slavishly. That is, occasionally a philosopher may have good reasons for suggesting to scientists that they should deviate from a standard use. Frequently, this amounts to a plea for differentiation in order to stop debates at cross-purposes due to the conflation of different meanings. While the special volumes of the series of Handbooks of the Philosophy of Science address topics relative to a specific discipline, this general volume deals with focal issues of a general nature. After an editorial introduction about the dominant method of clarifying concepts and principles in philosophy of science, called explication, the first five chapters deal with the following subjects. Laws, theories, and research programs as units of empirical knowledge (Theo Kuipers), various past and contemporary perspectives on explanation (Stathis Psillos), the evaluation of theories in terms of their virtues (Ilkka Niiniluto), and the role of experiments in the natural sciences, notably physics and biology (Allan Franklin), and their role in the social sciences, notably economics (Wenceslao Gonzalez). In the subsequent three chapters there is even more attention to various positions and methods that philosophers of science and scientists may favor: ontological, epistemological, and methodological positions (James Ladyman), reduction, integration, and the unity of science as aims in the sciences and the humanities (William Bechtel and Andrew Hamilton), and logical, historical and computational approaches to the philosophy of science (Atocha Aliseda and Donald Gillies). The volume concludes with the much debated question of demarcating science from nonscience (Martin Mahner) and the rich European-American history of the philosophy of science in the 20th century (Friedrich Stadler). Comprehensive coverage of the philosophy of science written by leading philosophers in this field Clear style of writing for an interdisciplinary audience No specific pre-knowledge required

Philosophy of Complex Systems

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080931227
Format: PDF, ePub
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The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included

Philosophy of Being

Author: Oliva Blanchette
Publisher: CUA Press
ISBN: 9780813210964
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This work aims to reopen the fundamental question of being. It raises the question of being after the natural sciences and phenomenology have run their course and pursues it according to a method that is properly metaphysical as well as critical.

Metaphysics and the Origin of Species

Author: Michael T. Ghiselin
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791434673
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In explaining his individuality thesis, Michael T. Ghiselin provides extended discussions of such philosophical topics as definition, the reality of various kinds of groups, and how we classify traits and processes. He develops and applies the implications for general biology and other sciences and makes the case that a better understanding of species and of classification in general puts biologists and paleontologists in a much better position to understand nature in general, and such processes as extinction in particular.

Beyond Matter

Author: Roger Trigg
Publisher: Templeton Foundation Press
ISBN: 1599474964
Format: PDF, Docs
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Does science have all the answers? Can it even deal with abstract reasoning which reaches beyond the world experienced by us? How can we be so sure that the physical world is sufficiently ordered to be intelligible to humans? How is it that mathematics, a product of human minds, can unlock the secrets of the physical universe? Are all such questions to be ruled out as inadmissible if science cannot settle them? Metaphysics has traditionally been understood as reasoning beyond the reach of science, sometimes even claiming realities that are beyond its grasp. Because of this, metaphysics has often been contemptuously dismissed by scientists and philosophers who wish to remain within the bounds of what can be scientifically proven. Yet scientists at the frontiers of physics unwittingly engage in metaphysics, as they are now happy to contemplate whole universes that are, in principle, beyond human reach. Roger Trigg challenges those who deny that science needs philosophical assumptions. In fact, Trigg claims that the foundations of science themselves have to lie beyond science. It takes reasoning apart from what can be experienced to discover what is not yet known, and this metaphysical reasoning to imagine realities beyond what can be accessed. “In Beyond Matter, Roger Trigg advances a powerful, persuasive, fair-minded argument that the sciences require a philosophical, metaphysical foundation. This is a brilliant book for new-comers to philosophy of science and experts alike.” —Charles Taliaferro, professor of philosophy, St. Olaf College

The History and Philosophy of Science

Author: Daniel McKaughan
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1474232744
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The History and Philosophy of Science: A Reader brings together seminal texts from antiquity to the end of the nineteenth century and makes them accessible in one volume for the first time. With readings from Aristotle, Aquinas, Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Newton, Lavoisier, Linnaeus, Darwin, Faraday, and Maxwell, it analyses and discusses major classical, medieval and modern texts and figures from the natural sciences. Grouped by topic to clarify the development of methods and disciplines and the unification of theories, each section includes an introduction, suggestions for further reading and end-of-section discussion questions, allowing students to develop the skills needed to: § read, interpret, and critically engage with central problems and ideas from the history and philosophy of science § understand and evaluate scientific material found in a wide variety of professional and popular settings § appreciate the social and cultural context in which scientific ideas emerge § identify the roles that mathematics plays in scientific inquiry Featuring primary sources in all the core scientific fields - astronomy, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences - The History and Philosophy of Science: A Reader is ideal for students looking to better understand the origins of natural science and the questions asked throughout its history. By taking a thematic approach to introduce influential assumptions, methods and answers, this reader illustrates the implications of an impressive range of values and ideas across the history and philosophy of Western science.

INTRODUCING AFRICAN SCIENCE

Author: Jonathan O. Chimakonam (Ph.D)
Publisher: Author House
ISBN: 1477249427
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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You are about to read a much-needed book that will open your eyes to the Africa that has been hidden from us. Thinking out of the box of Western thought pattern, Dr. Jonathan has been able to give to the world this revolutionary masterpiece in the intellectual history of Africa. By systematizing African science he has emphasized that more than one cock crows. We may therefore call him the Demiurge of new African renaissance. Mary Nelson Sankofa Directions Houston Texas, USA ‘ Se wo were fi na wosan kofa a, yenkyi.’ Learning from the past in building the future ----------------------------------------------------------------- With this masterpiece, Dr. Jonathan has answered all the critics of Africa’s intellectual and inventive ability. He has opened a door to Africa’s authentic renaissance. The work is a beacon in Africa’s history and the author has emerged as one of the continent’s brightest minds. Chris Iwarah The Sun Newspaper ---------------------------------------------------------------- With this towering intellectual accomplishment, Dr. Jonathan Chimakonam has not only proven that Africans are capable of revolutionary thoughts but has emerged as one of the leading original thinkers on the continent. In fact, in this piece of adorable literature, Jonathan could be said to have done for Africa what thinkers like Francis Bacon did for the West Prof. G. O. Ozumba Head, Department of Philosophy University of Calabar, Nigeria ----------------------------------------------------------------- What Jonathan has done is not different from what the builders of Western science did. In fact, he has taken his seat as the Francis Bacon of African science project and it would not be out of place if one describes him in the future as the father of African science. Okechukwukelu Okonkwo Deputy Director Programmes Anambra Broadcasting Service ----------------------------------------------------------------- This book is a great exploration into a rich repository of wisdom and knowledge which needs to be recaptured. It is African renaissance that will reposition Africa in the world of technology and development. This is both challenging and refreshing. With emerging scholars like Jonathan, there is hope for Africa! Hakuna Matata! Venerable Professor Udobata Onunwa Director, International Center for the Study of African Languages and Culture, Birmingham, UK