Micro XRF Studies of Sediment Cores

Author: Ian W. Croudace
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401798494
Format: PDF, Docs
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This volume presents papers on the use of micro-XRF core scanners in palaeoenvironmental research. It contains a broad ranging view of instrument capability and points to future developments that will help contribute to higher precision elemental data and faster core analysis. Readers will find a diverse range of research by leading experts that have used micro-XRF core scanners in a wide range of scientific applications. The book includes specific application papers reporting on the use of XRF core scanners in a variety of marine, lacustrine, and pollution studies. In addition, coverage also examines practical aspects of core scanner usage, data optimisation and data calibration and interpretation. In a little over a decade, micro-XRF sediment core scanners have made a substantive contribution to palaeoenvironmental research. Their impact is based on their ability to rapidly, non-destructively and automatically scan sediment cores. Not only do they rapidly provide important proxy data without damaging samples, but they can obtain environmental data at decadal, annual and even sub-annual scales. This volume will help both experienced and new users of these non-destructive core scanners take full advantage of one of the most powerful geochemical screening tools in the environmental scientist's toolbox.

Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments

Author: John P. Smol
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402006586
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Paleolimnology is a rapidly developing science that is now being used to study a suite of environmental and ecological problems. This volume is the fourth handbook in the Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research book series. The first volume (Last & Smol, 2001a) examined the acquisition and archiving of sediment cores, chronological techniques, and large-scale basin analysis methods. Volume 2 (Last & Smol, 2001b) focused on physical and chemical methods. Volume 3 (Smol et al. , 2001), along with this book, summarize the many biological methods and techniques that are available to study long-term environmental changeusing information preserved in sedimentary profiles. A subsequent volume (Birks et al. , in preparation) will deal with statistical and data handling procedures. It is our intent that these books will provide sufficient detail and breadth to be useful handbooks for both seasoned practitioners as well as newcomers to the area of paleolimnology. These books will also hopefully be useful to non-paleolimnologists (e. g. , limnologists, archeologists, palynologists, geographers, geologists, etc. ) who continue to hear and read about pal- limnology, but have little chance to explore the vast and sometimes difficult to access journal-based reference material for this rapidly expanding field. Although the chapters in these volumes target mainly lacustrine settings, many of the techniques described can also be readily applied to fluvial, glacial, marine, estuarine, and peatland environments. This current volume focuses on zoological indicators preserved in lake sediments, whilst Volume 3 focused on terrestrial, algal, and siliceous indicators.

Principles of Elemental Chemostratigraphy

Author: Neil Craigie
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319712160
Format: PDF
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This book provides the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the applications of chemostratigraphy. The first chapter of the book offers an introduction to the technique. This is followed by a chapter detailing sample preparation and analytical techniques. Chapter 3 focuses on the techniques utilised to establish the mineralogical affinities of elements, while the general principles of how to build a chemostratigraphic scheme are covered in Chapter 4. Chapters 5, 6 and 7 provide information on the applications of chemostratigraphy to clastic, carbonate and unconventional reservoirs respectively, and various case studies are presented. Wellsite applications, a discussion and conclusion section form the latter part of the book. The book will appeal to graduate and post graduate students of geology and professionals working in the hydrocarbon sector as a key reference text in chemostratigraphy.

Dating Torrential Processes on Fans and Cones

Author: Michelle Schneuwly-Bollschweiler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940074336X
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book provides a detailed overview on methods used for the dating of past torrential activity on fans and cones and fosters the discussion on the impact of past and potential future climate change on torrential processes. The book has a clear focus on the practical applications of these methods, complemented by case studies. The limits of each dating method in case of excessive natural and human interventions on fans and cones are shown.

Palaeolimnological Proxies as Tools of Environmental Reconstruction in Fresh Water

Author: Krisztina Buczkó
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048133871
Format: PDF, ePub
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Palaeolimnology is one of the most rapidly developing fields of limnology. The primary objective of this volume is to present new palaeolimnological findings from eastern and central Europe. Although this area has sometimes received less attention than other areas of Europe, the lakes and mires, coupled with the variability in landscape and the local differences in climate, provide unique opportunity for studying palaeolimnology. The volume starts with a review on late Quaternary records form the Carpathian region, followed by new results on the history of a crater lake, Lake Saint Ana, glacial lakes in the Tatra Mountains and Lake Bled in Slovenia. In addition, the various papers provide new insights on the development of lakes and bogs during the late glacial and Holocene, using a wide range of palaeolimnological proxies, including diatoms, pollen, macrofossils, pigments, cladoceran remains, chironomids, chaoborids, stable isotopes and geochemistry. The motivation for collecting recent knowledge derives from the recognition of the importance, and applicability of palaeolimnological tools to help in defining "reference conditions" as designated within the Water Framework Directives and estimating influence of global climate change on surface waters.

Applications of Paleoenvironmental Techniques in Estuarine Studies

Author: Kaarina Weckström
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9402409904
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The aim of this edited volume is to introduce the scientific community to paleoenvironmental studies of estuaries, to highlight the types of information that can be obtained from such studies, and to promote the use of paleoenvironmental studies in estuarine management. Readers will learn about the the application of different paleoecological approaches used in estuaries that develop our understanding of their response to natural and human influences. Particular attention is given to the essential steps required for undertaking a paleoecological study, in particular with regard to site selection, core extraction and chronological techniques, followed by the range of indicators that can be used. A series of case studies are discussed in the book to demonstrate how paleoecological studies can be used to address key questions, and to sustainably manage these important coastal environments in the future. This book will appeal to professional scientists interested in estuarine studies and/or paleoenvironmental research, as well as estuarine managers who are interested in the incorporation of paleoenvironmental research into their management programs.

New Techniques in Sediment Core Analysis

Author: R. G. Rothwell
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 9781862392106
Format: PDF
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In this volume, recent advances in analytical and logging technology and their application to the analysis of sediment cores are presented. Developments in providing access to core data and associated datasets, and advances in data mining technology in order to integrate and interpret new and legacy datasets within the wider context of seafloor studies are also discussed.

XAFS Techniques for Catalysts Nanomaterials and Surfaces

Author: Yasuhiro Iwasawa
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319438662
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book is a comprehensive, theoretical, practical, and thorough guide to XAFS spectroscopy. The book addresses XAFS fundamentals such as experiments, theory and data analysis, advanced XAFS methods such as operando XAFS, time-resolved XAFS, spatially resolved XAFS, total-reflection XAFS, high energy resolution XAFS, and practical applications to a variety of catalysts, nanomaterials and surfaces. This book is accessible to a broad audience in academia and industry, and will be a useful guide for researchers entering the subject and graduate students in a wide variety of disciplines.

Post Bonneville Paleoearthquake Chronology of the Salt Lake City Segment Wasatch Fault Zone from the 1999 Megatrench Site

Author: James McCalpin
Publisher: Utah Geological Survey
ISBN: 1557916705
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This report presents the results of a paleoseismic investigation designed to date a long series of consecutive earthquakes on the Wasatch fault zone and to measure the variability of recurrence times between the events. Geologists have long recognized that the comparatively short average recurrence interval (compared to most other basin-and-range normal faults) between large surface-faulting earthquakes on the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault zone during mid- to late-Holocene time is potentially anomalous, and possibly affected by the rise and fall of Lake Bonneville. This study extends the paleoearthquake record back to Bonneville time, nearly doubling the previous record, and provides new information on the timing and periodicity of surface faulting on the Salt Lake City segment from the latest Pleistocene through the Holocene. The trench and accompanying auger hole for this study exposed 26 meters of vertical section, roughly four times that of a typical paleoseismic trench on the Wasatch fault zone, hence the name “Megatrench.”