MicroRNA Targeted Cancer Therapy

Author: Fazlul H. Sarkar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business
ISBN: 3319051342
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) some twenty years ago by Victor Ambros, David Baulcombe and Gary Ruvkun, these three scientists worked to uncover the mystery of miRNA, the small segments of nucleotides that silence genes. While studying the development of the nematode worm, Ambros and Ruvkun discovered miRNA in animals, while Baulcombe discovered it in plants. Since their discovery, it took more than two decade to fully appreciate the value of miRNA in human health and diseases. Emerging evidence suggest that the activation of oncogenes and/or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes contribute to the development and progression of tumors. The regulation of genes is by far controlled by many transcription factors which are often deregulated during the development and progression of cancer. In addition, emerging evidence clearly suggests that the deregulation of miRNAs or small non-coding RNAs could also regulate the expression of genes and likewise, miRNA genes are also regulated by transcription factors. The most attractive feature of miRNAs is that one miRNA can regulate many target genes (mRNAs) and thus miRNA targeted therapy is highly promising because multiple genes could be regulated by targeting a single miRNA, which becomes very important for the killing of highly heterogeneous populations of cancer cells within a tumor mass. Therefore, miRNA targeted therapy is an attractive attribute of miRNA research, which is covered through eighteen chapters complied in this book “MicroRNA targeted Cancer therapy” and it is hoped that the field of miRNA research will be appreciated through critical reading of these chapters on the cutting-edge research on miRNAs.

miRNAs and Target Genes in Breast Cancer Metastasis

Author: Seema Sethi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319081624
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This SpringerBrief gives the latest research on the role of miRNAs in breast cancer metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently described small endogenous noncoding RNAs implicated in the posttranscriptional control of gene expression. These tiny molecules are involved in developmental, physiologic phenomenon as well as pathologic processes including cancers. In fact, miRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of cancer progression, invasion and metastasis. This is mainly because a single miRNA can affect several downstream genes and signaling pathways with oncogenic or tumor suppressor actions depending on the target genes affected. Due to this multimodal downstream signaling effects, these small endogenous molecules hold great promise in metastasis prevention and treatment. Modulating the activity of miRNAs can provide opportunities for novel cancer interventions. Targeting miRNAs could become a novel prognostic and therapeutic strategy to prevent the future development of metastasis. Thus, miRNAs could also serve as a potential targets for anti-metastatic therapy. The book explores how the expression of miRNAs in the primary tumor could be silenced using antagomirs (chemically modified anti-miRNA oligonucleotides), which could prevent the development of metastasis; whereas once metastasis develops then it could be treated with miRNA mimics for inducing its expression for the treatment. Therefore, development of miRNA-based prophylactic therapies could serve as precision and personalized medicine against future development of metastasis of breast and other cancers.

Targeting Autophagy in Cancer Therapy

Author: Jin-Ming Yang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319427407
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume will detail the current state and perspectives of autophagy-based cancer therapy. Covering a wide range of topics, it will include an overview of autophagy as a therapeutic target in cancer, autophagy modulators as cancer therapeutic agents, implications of micro-RNA-regulated autophagy in cancer therapy, modulation of autophagy through targeting PI3 kinase in cancer therapy, targeting autophagy in cancer stem cells, and roles of autophagy in cancer immunotherapy. In addition, the volume will review applications of system biology and bioinformatics approaches to discovering cancer therapeutic targets in the autophagy regulatory network. The volume will be beneficial for a variety of basic and clinical scientists, including cancer biologists, autophagy researchers, pharmacologists, and clinical oncologists who wish to delve more deeply into this field of cancer research. This volume will be the first book to focus solely on autophagy as a target in cancer therapy. As well, it will comprehensively discuss the roles of autophagy in most currently available cancer treatments.

Epigenetic Cancer Therapy

Author: Steven Gray
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128002247
Format: PDF, ePub
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Epigenetic Cancer Therapy unites issues central to a translational audience actively seeking to understand the topic. It is ideal for cancer specialists, including oncologists and clinicians, but also provides valuable information for researchers, academics, students, governments, and decision-makers in the healthcare sector. The text covers the basic background of the epigenome, aberrant epigenetics, and its potential as a target for cancer therapy, and includes individual chapters on the state of epigenome knowledge in specific cancers (including lung, breast, prostate, liver). The book encompasses both large-scale intergovernmental initiatives as well as recent findings across cancer stem cells, rational drug design, clinical trials, and chemopreventative strategies. As a whole, the work articulates and raises the profile of epigenetics as a therapeutic option in the future management of cancer. Concisely summarizes the therapeutic implications of recent, large-scale epigenome studies, including the cancer epigenome atlas Discusses targeted isoform specific versus pan-specific inhibitors, a rational drug design approach to epigenetics relevant to pharmacoepigenetic clinical applications Covers new findings in the interplay between cancer stem cells (CSCs) and drug resistance, demonstrating that epigenetic machinery is a candidate target for the eradication of these CSCs

Nanostructures for Drug Delivery

Author: Ecaterina Andronescu
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323461492
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Nanostructures for Drug Delivery extensively covers the various nanostructured products that have been tested as carriers in target drug delivery systems. In addition, the book analyses the advantages of, and issues related to, using nanostructured materials in drug delivery systems, also detailing various nanocarrier preparation techniques. As delivering the drug to the target site is a major problem in providing effective treatment for many diseases, this book covers the latest advancements in numerous nanotechnological products that are being used in disease detection, controlled drug delivery, as biosensors, and in tissue engineering that have been developed for more efficient patient healthcare. Due to the versatility of nanostructured materials, it is now possible to deliver a drug at its target site in a more accurate and efficient way. This volume is an up-to-date, state-of-the-art work that highlights the principal mechanistic aspects related to the delivery of active nanoscale therapeutic agents (natural or synthetic) and their release profile in different environmental media. It highlights nanoscale encapsulation strategies and discusses both organic and inorganic nanomaterials as carriers and delivery platforms. Demonstrates how nanostructures are successfully employed in drug delivery stems and as drug delivery agents, allowing biomaterials scientists and biochemists to create more effective drug delivery systems Offers an overview of recent research into the use of nanostructures in drug delivery techniques in a cogent, synthesized way, allowing readers to quickly familiarize themselves with this area Includes examples of how the application of nanostructures have improved the efficiency of drug delivery systems, showing medical scientists how they are beneficial

MicroRNAs in Development and Cancer

Author: Frank J. Slack
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1848163665
Format: PDF, ePub
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MicroRNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of gene expression during development and are frequently misexpressed in human disease states, in particular cancer. These 22-nucleotide-long transcripts act to promote or repress cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis during development, all of which are processes that go awry in cancer. Thus, microRNAs have the ability to behave like oncogenes or tumor suppressors. In addition, their small size and molecular properties make them amenable as targets and therapeutics in cancer treatment. This book goes into detail on how microRNAs represent a paradigm shift in thinking about gene regulation during development and disease, and provide the oncologist with a potentially powerful new battery of agents to diagnose and treat cancer.

Epigenetics and Cancer

Author: Fazlul H. Sarkar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400766122
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Overall, this book illustrates the complexities of the regulation and deregulation of genes mediated through epigenetics in the development and progression of human malignancies. All the articles have been carefully chosen to represent several cancer systems with state of our knowledge on the role of epigenetic deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target mRNAs along with epigenetic deregulation of mRNAs. This book also illustrates the role of several dietary agents, collectively called nutraceuticals or natural agents in modulating the epigenetic reprogramming of miRNAs and mRNAs for the prevention and/or treatment of human malignancies. It is well known that genetic aberrations, especially inherited through parents (somatic genetic alterations) contribute to the development of less than 10% of all cancer yet epigenetic alterations in genes especially through selective methylation and acetylation appears to be responsible for the development and progression of the vast majority of all cancers. Therefore, understanding the role of epigenetics in the regulation of genes especially through deregulated expression of miRNAs as presented in this book will allow scientists to devise targeted therapeutic strategies for re-expression of the lost genes or down-regulate the genes that are over-expressed in order to eradicate cancer. It is hoped that targeting epigenetics will not only target cancer cells but it will also target the tumor microenvironment (more like the entire tumor environment such as the entire host) for achieving better treatment outcomes for patients diagnosed with cancer which will lead to achieve the long-term objective for complete eradication of cancer. This book contains fifteen chapters which begins with the concept of systems and network biology for investigating the epigenetics of cancer followed by a series of articles on the role of miRNAs and their target genes in the biology of pancreatic cancer and other cancers such as breast, kidney, prostate and and colon. Since it is becoming increasingly clear that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are important in the development and progression of cancer, and CSCs are important in therapeutic resistance, treatment failure and tumor recurrence, thus the importance of CSCs and epigenetics has been highlighted by a very timely article on epigenetic variations of stem cell markers in cancer including miRNAs. Moreover, just targeting heterogeneous cancer cell populations may not be optimal to eradicate tumors and for which one must take a holistic approach for developing drugs that could also target the tumor microenvironment and tumor dormancy that are regulated through epigenetics. Keeping abreast with this thought process the concluding chapter provides a concept towards curative cancer therapy with maspin, which could be a unique window of opportunity to target tumor dormancy. Therefore, it suggest that targeting the tumor dormancy and the tumor microenvironment using novel therapeutics specifically by targeting epigenetics would become the future of medicine.

Molecular Pathology An Issue of Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

Author: Martin H. Bluth
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323261051
Format: PDF
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Molecular pathology has significantly matured over the past decade to establish itself as a discipline in its own right. Patient diagnosis, prognosis, management and care have been influenced by molecular pathology testing algorithms on a global scale. Whether it pertains to carrier status of deleterious genes, diagnosis by molecular techniques, assessment of appropriate remission post treatment, parentage or forensics testing – molecular pathology continues to increase its presence and influence in the diagnostic laboratory armamentarium. Furthermore, intellectualization and proprietization of molecular pathology with respect to the discovery of new genes and or new techniques continues to pose new challenges of test ownership, legalities, liabilities, widespread acceptance and utility. This issue of Laboratory Clinics seeks to provide selective state of the art understanding of molecular pathology with respect to its relationship to key pathology disciplines as well as the current challenges and promise for the future.

Cancer Gene Therapy by Viral and Non viral Vectors

Author: Malcolm Brenner
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118501659
Format: PDF, Docs
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Provides expert, state-of-the-art insight into the currentprogress of viral and non-viral gene therapy Translational medicine has opened the gateway to the era ofpersonalized or precision medicine. No longer a one-size-fits-allapproach, the treatment of cancer is now based on an understandingof underlying biologic mechanisms and is increasingly beingtailored to the molecular specificity of a tumor. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the pertinentmolecular discoveries in the cancer field and explains how theseare being used for gene-based cancer therapies. Designed as avolume in the Translational Oncology book series, Cancer GeneTherapy by Viral and Non-viral Vectors deals with the practiceof gene-therapy, with reference to vectors for gene expression andgene transfer, as well as viral therapy. It covers the history andcurrent and future applications of gene transfer in cancer, andprovides expert insight on the progress of viral and non-viral genetherapy with regard to delivery system, vector design, potentialtherapeutic genes, and principles and regulations for cancer genetherapy. Presented in three parts, Cancer Gene Therapy by Viral andNon-viral Vectors covers: Delivery Systems • Translational Cancer Research: Gene Therapy by Viraland Non-viral Vectors • Retroviruses for Cancer Therapy • DNA Plasmids for Non-viral Gene Therapy ofCancer • Cancer Therapy with RNAi delivered by Non-viralMembrane/Core Nanoparticles Targeted Expression • Cancer Gene Therapy by Tissue-specific andCancer-targeting Promptors • MicroRNAs as Drugs and Drug Targets in Cancer Principles of Clinical Trials in Gene Therapy • Regulatory issues for Manufacturers of Viral Vectorsand Vector-transduced Cells for Phase I/II Trials • US Regulations Governing Clinical Trials in GeneTherapy • Remaining Obstacles to the Success of Cancer GeneTherapy Focusing on speeding the process in clinical cancer care bybringing therapies as quickly as possible from bench to bedside,Cancer Gene Therapy by Viral and Non-viral Vectors is anabsolutely vital book for physicians, clinicians, researchers, andstudents involved in this area of medicine.

MicroRNAs in Cancer Translational Research

Author: William C.S. Cho
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400702981
Format: PDF, Kindle
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MicroRNA (miRNA) is a cutting-edge topic in the scientific and medical fields. This is a timely and specialized book focusing on the current understanding of miRNAs and the potential for their application in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic targets. It also provides discussion of the lessons learned from translational miRNA studies and exploration of the next steps required to advance this field. The unique book comprises 22 in-depth chapters by gathering unparalleled topics of interest in miRNAs by international team of world-renowned experts in the field. The first fifteen chapters provide comprehensive and expert perspectives on the most common cancers from bench to bedside applications, there is no current book structured in this cancer-oriented way. The next seven chapters providing thorough overviews of miRNAs and cancer stem cells; miRNAs in cancer invasion and metastasis; miRNAs in predicting radiotherapy and chemotherapy response; as well as expounding the role of miRNA in anti-cancer drug resistance and as blood-based cancer biomarkers. Furthermore, this book explicates the interplay of miRNAs in cancer metabolism and an update on the pioneering RNAi-based treatment approaches is also presented. This specialized book will contribute great to the scientific and medical community by providing the up-to-date discoveries of miRNAs and their important roles in cancer translational research.