Middle American Terranes Potential Correlatives and Orogenic Processes

Author: J. Duncan Keppie
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420073737
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Consisting of papers that have appeared recently in International Geology Review, Middle American Terranes, Potential Correlatives, and Orogenic Processes focuses on Middle American terranes in which tectonic processes, including flat-slab subduction, for orogenic development are examined at various times since the late Mesoproterozoic: at 1 Ga, through the Paleozoic, and into the Cenozoic. Many papers relate the evolution of the Middle American terranes over the past billion years to global scale events, and a second theme running through the book relates to the supercontinents, Rodinia and Pangea, the geometry of their amalgamation and breakup, and the processes responsible. Highlights include: · An update on the geographic record, tectonic setting, and provenance of these terranes · Documentation of allocthonous nature and position peripheral to Amazonia of the ~1 Ga basement of southern Mexico · Data demonstrating that the basement rocks were involved in several Phanerozoic tectonic events · An examination of new evidence of a Late Paleozoic event associated with the amalgamation of Pangea overprinting the ~1 Ga basement and the Paleozoic units lying chiefly to the west and south of it · An exploration of the following potential correlatives: (1) events in Europe on the northern margin of Gondwana; (2) the Late Silurian-Devonian Acadian orogeny in the Appalachian, which is inferred to have resulted from flat-slab subduction related to overriding a plume; and (3) Mesozoic-Cenozoic events along the western margin of Laurentia · A discussion of possible mechanisms for the initiation of orogeny, flat-slab subduction in the Laramide orogeny, and hypotheses relating to the amalgamation and breakup of supercontinents The combination of respected contributors, expert editorial guidance, and coverage of current and emerging theories makes this book an essential resource for understanding the evolution of the terranes constituting Middle America.

Geology and Tectonics of Northwestern South America

Author: Fabio Cediel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319761323
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of the geological evolution of the Northern Andes and contiguous shield areas, with a focus upon Colombia. Updated geological interpretations are supported by modern lithogeochemical, seismic, gravity and magnetic data and radiogenic isotope and radiometric age determinations. The composite data permits a detailed interpretation of the tectono-magmatic history of the Northern Andean Block, including the Andes of Colombia, northern Ecuador, western Venezuela and eastern Panamá. Tectonic reconstructions based upon characterization of more than thirty litho-tectonic and morpho-structural units, terrane assemblages and tectonic realms, and their bounding suture and fault systems, highlight the intimate and complementary Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of the Northern Andean Block and the Pacific and Caribbean Plates. The complex nature of Northern Andean assembly contrasts with ‘‘classical’’ Central Andean ‘‘Cordilleran-type’’ orogenic models. Differences render the application of typical Cordilleran-type models inappropriate for the Colombian Andes. The importance of underlying Proterozoic through mid-Mesozoic elements, in the development of Meso-Cenozoic Northern Andean orogeny-phase tectonic configurations is analyzed in the light of spatial-temporal studies and reconstructions related to basin formation, sedimentation, deformation, uplift mechanisms, structural style and magmatic evolution. The pre-Andean architecture of north western South America has played a pre-determinative role in the development of the Northern Andean orogenic system. 16 contributions analyze key stratigraphic, structural, metamorphic, magmatic and tectonic questions, and provide solutions as far as the most recent published field-based studies permit. The volume provides geological interpretations and tectonic models which contrast with repetitive theoretical proposals frequently found in the available literature.

Terrane Processes at the Margins of Gondwana

Author: Alan Vaughan
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 9781862391796
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Australide orogen, the southern hemisphere Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic terrane accretionary orogen that forms the palaeo-Pacific margin of Gondwana, is one of the largest and longest-lived orogens on Earth. This book brings together a series of reviews and multidisciplinary research papers that comprehensively cover the Australides from the Tasman orogen of eastern Australia to the Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic orogens of South America, taking in New Zealand and Antarctica along the way. It deals with the evolution of the southern Gondwana margin, as it grew during a series of terrane accretion episodes from the late Proterozoic through to final fragmentation in mid-Cretaceous times. Global perspectives are given by comparison with the Palaeozoic northern Gondwana margin and documentation of world-wide terrane accretion episodes in the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic and mid-Cretaceous. The Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and the terrane histories of New Zealand and southern South America are given comprehensive up-to-date reviews.

Introduction to Process Geomorphology

Author: Vijay K. Sharma
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439882789
Format: PDF
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Introduction to Process Geomorphology provides an integrative approach to the process dynamics and the origin of landforms by the contemporary processes involved in their evolution. The author highlights the physical and chemical laws governing the activity of the earth-surface processes in specific environmental stress conditions, puts forward competing hypotheses on the evolution of landforms, and discusses the bases of internal geologic processes for the explanation of the tectogenic features of the earth. Landforms evolve over a long period of cyclic and geologic time, inheriting the imprints of past process rates and/or process domains. The principles and methods of evaluating the signature of environmental change are highlighted in the text by citing suitable studies. The process-form relationships provide the building blocks also for the optimum utilization of the land resources of the earth, and quantitative assessment of the stability of geomorphic systems and the quality of environment. The approach in this part of the text enables readers to gain an in-depth understanding of the application of the principles of geomorphology to the evaluation, planning, and management of the earth’s resources for sustainable development. This book discusses process dynamics in quantitative terms and reviews theories on the evolution of landforms that flow from theoretical and empirical data. It offers examples and case studies that enable students to comprehend the related components of process-landform relationships. The review and synthesis of information found in each chapter provides a better understanding of the complexity of still inadequately understood process activities and the manner of landform evolution.

Tectonics

Author: Eldridge M. Moores
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 9780716724377
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The first full-length textbook devoted exclusively to explaining the principles and applications of tectonic theory, written by two of the field's leading authorities. It is designed for upper-level courses in active tectonics and structures.

The Evolution of the Rheic Ocean

Author: Ulf Linnemann
Publisher: Geological Society of America
ISBN: 0813724236
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Geological evolution of middle to late Paleozoic rocks in the Avalon terrane of northern mainland Nova Scotia, Canadian Appalachians: a record of tectonothermal activity along the northern margin of the Rheic Ocean in the Appalachian-Caledonide orogen.

Earth History and Palaeogeography

Author: Trond H. Torsvik
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316720721
Format: PDF, Docs
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Using full-colour palaeogeographical maps from the Cambrian to the present, this interdisciplinary volume explains how plate motions and surface volcanism are linked to processes in the Earth's mantle, and to climate change and the evolution of the Earth's biota. These new and very detailed maps provide a complete and integrated Phanerozoic story of palaeogeography. They illustrate the development of all the major mountain-building orogenies. Old lands, seas, ice caps, volcanic regions, reefs, and coal beds are highlighted on the maps, as well as faunal and floral provinces. Many other original diagrams show sections from the Earth's core, through the mantle, and up to the lithosphere, and how Large Igneous Provinces are generated, helping to understand how plates have appeared, moved, and vanished through time. Supplementary resources are available online, making this an invaluable reference for researchers, graduate students, professional geoscientists and anyone interested in the geological history of the Earth.

Earth Systems

Author: Wallace Gary Ernst
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521478953
Format: PDF, Docs
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Collecting the insightful teaching experiences of an internationally respected group of researchers and lecturers, this undergraduate textbook will impact the future development of environmental studies and earth system science. Integrating the principles of the natural sciences, engineering, and economics as they pertain to the global environment, Earth Systems: Processes and Issues explains the complex couplings and feedback mechanisms linking the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. This volume uniquely combines topics in the physical and life sciences with engineering environmental systems, regional case studies, and the economic implications of environmental public policy decisions. Fully integrated, it is an ideal textbook for a wide range of courses dealing with environmental issues, including earth and atmospheric science, environmental science, biological science, oceanography, geography, civil engineering, and social science. Each chapter includes a reading list of the most important references, and problem sets will encourage students to explore the subject further.