Mission Failure

Author: Michael Mandelbaum
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190469471
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"In Mission Failure, Mandelbaum argues that, in the past 25 years, U.S. foreign policy has undergone a significant shift. Historically, U.S. foreign policy was oriented primarily toward threat reduction, but the U.S. military has turned in recent years to missions that are largely humanitarian and socio-political. Mandelbaum argues that ideologically-driven foreign policy--that which seeks to reconstruct societies along Western lines--generally leads to mission failure"--

Mission Failure

Author: Michael Mandelbaum
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019046948X
Format: PDF
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The end of the Cold War led to a dramatic and fundamental change in the foreign policy of the United States. In Mission Failure, Michael Mandelbaum, one of America's leading foreign-policy thinkers, provides an original, provocative, and definitive account of the ambitious but deeply flawed post-Cold War efforts to promote American values and American institutions throughout the world. In the decades before the Cold War ended the United States, like virtually every other country throughout history, used its military power to defend against threats to important American international interests or to the American homeland itself. When the Cold War concluded, however, it embarked on military interventions in places where American interests were not at stake. Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia and Kosovo had no strategic or economic importance for the United States, which intervened in all of them for purely humanitarian reasons. Each such intervention led to efforts to transform the local political and economic systems. The invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, launched in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, turned into similar missions of transformation. None of them achieved its aims. Mission Failure describes and explains how such missions came to be central to America's post-Cold War foreign policy, even in relations with China and Russia in the early 1990s and in American diplomacy in the Middle East, and how they all failed. Mandelbaum shows how American efforts to bring peace, national unity, democracy, and free-market economies to poor, disorderly countries ran afoul of ethnic and sectarian loyalties and hatreds and foundered as well on the absence of the historical experiences and political habits, skills, and values that Western institutions require. The history of American foreign policy in the years after the fall of the Berlin Wall is, he writes, "the story of good, sometimes noble, and thoroughly American intentions coming up against the deeply embedded, often harsh, and profoundly un-American realities of places far from the United States. In this encounter the realities prevailed."

Mission Failure

Author: Michael Mandelbaum
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190469498
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
The end of the Cold War led to a dramatic and fundamental change in the foreign policy of the United States. In Mission Failure, Michael Mandelbaum, one of America's leading foreign-policy thinkers, provides an original, provocative, and definitive account of the ambitious but deeply flawed post-Cold War efforts to promote American values and American institutions throughout the world. In the decades before the Cold War ended the United States, like virtually every other country throughout history, used its military power to defend against threats to important American international interests or to the American homeland itself. When the Cold War concluded, however, it embarked on military interventions in places where American interests were not at stake. Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia and Kosovo had no strategic or economic importance for the United States, which intervened in all of them for purely humanitarian reasons. Each such intervention led to efforts to transform the local political and economic systems. The invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, launched in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, turned into similar missions of transformation. None of them achieved its aims. Mission Failure describes and explains how such missions came to be central to America's post-Cold War foreign policy, even in relations with China and Russia in the early 1990s and in American diplomacy in the Middle East, and how they all failed. Mandelbaum shows how American efforts to bring peace, national unity, democracy, and free-market economies to poor, disorderly countries ran afoul of ethnic and sectarian loyalties and hatreds and foundered as well on the absence of the historical experiences and political habits, skills, and values that Western institutions require. The history of American foreign policy in the years after the fall of the Berlin Wall is, he writes, "the story of good, sometimes noble, and thoroughly American intentions coming up against the deeply embedded, often harsh, and profoundly un-American realities of places far from the United States. In this encounter the realities prevailed."

Does America Need a Foreign Policy

Author: Henry Kissinger
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 0684855682
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The former Secretary of State under Richard Nixon argues that a coherent foreign policy is essential and lays out his own plan for getting the nation's international affairs in order.

Global Security in the Twenty first Century

Author: Sean Kay
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
ISBN: 1442206152
Format: PDF, Docs
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This second edition of Global Security in the Twenty-first Century offers a thoroughly updated and balanced introduction to contemporary security studies. Sean Kay examines the relationship between globalization and international security and places traditional quests for power and national security in the context of the ongoing search for peace. Sean Kay explores a range of security challenges, including fresh analysis of the implications of the global economic crisis and current flashpoints for international security trends. Writing in an engaging style, Kay integrates traditional and emerging challenges in one easily accessible study that gives readers the tools they need to develop a thoughtful and nuanced understanding of global security.

Retreat and its Consequences

Author: Robert J. Lieber
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110714180X
Format: PDF, ePub
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What are the consequences of retreat and retrenchment in foreign policy? In recent years, America has pulled back from its long-time role of international leadership. In doing so the Obama administration has sought to conciliate adversaries, shown indifference to allies; called upon the international community to step in; proclaimed and then disavowed 'red lines'; and preferred to lead from behind in the face of catastrophic civil war in Syria, ISIS barbarism in the Middle East and North Africa, Russia's predatory behavior in Eastern Europe, and China's muscle-flexing in East Asia. The consequences of this 'realist' experiment have been costly and painful, and it has caused the US to lose credibility with friends and foes. America retains the capacity to lead, but unless it resumes a more robust role, the world is likely to become a more dangerous place, with mounting threats not only to regional stability and international order, but to the national interests of America itself.

American Foreign Policy Since World War II

Author: Steven W. Hook
Publisher: Cq Press
ISBN: 9781483368535
Format: PDF, ePub
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Hook and Spanier's classic text celebrates its Twentieth Edition with more of the context and analysis that has long made it the standard for guiding students through the complexities of American foreign policy. With each new edition, recent developments confirm the book's overarching theme--that there is an American "style" of foreign policy imbued with a distinct sense of national exceptionalism. Giving students the historical context they need, the book allows them to grasp the functions and frequent dysfunctions of the nation's evolving foreign policy agenda. In this new edition, chapters covering the end of the Cold War have been combined and streamlined, making room for a new chapter that examines the aftershocks of the Arab Spring, political breakdowns in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the rise of the Islamic State. The final chapter considers the revival of power politics in world politics, with Russia and China stepping up their attempts to weaken the United States and create a multipolar world. The book ends by reconsidering America's distinctive style of foreign policy and its resilience amid such turbulence since World War II.

Mandarins of the Future

Author: Nils Gilman
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801886331
Format: PDF, Docs
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Because it provided the dominant framework for the "development" of poor, postcolonial countries, modernization theory ranks among the most important constructs of twentieth-century social science. In Mandarins of the Future, Nils Gilman offers the first intellectual history of a movement that has had far-reaching, and often unintended, consequences.

Strategies of Containment

Author: John Lewis Gaddis
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199883998
Format: PDF, Docs
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When Strategies of Containment was first published, the Soviet Union was still a superpower, Ronald Reagan was president of the United States, and the Berlin Wall was still standing. This updated edition of Gaddis' classic carries the history of containment through the end of the Cold War. Beginning with Franklin D. Roosevelt's postwar plans, Gaddis provides a thorough critical analysis of George F. Kennan's original strategy of containment, NSC-68, The Eisenhower-Dulles "New Look," the Kennedy-Johnson "flexible response" strategy, the Nixon-Kissinger strategy of detente, and now a comprehensive assessment of how Reagan - and Gorbechev - completed the process of containment, thereby bringing the Cold War to an end. He concludes, provocatively, that Reagan more effectively than any other Cold War president drew upon the strengths of both approaches while avoiding their weaknesses. A must-read for anyone interested in Cold War history, grand strategy, and the origins of the post-Cold War world.

America s Mission

Author: Tony Smith
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691154929
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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America's Mission argues that the global strength and prestige of democracy today are due in large part to America's impact on international affairs. Tony Smith documents the extraordinary history of how American foreign policy has been used to try to promote democracy worldwide, an effort that enjoyed its greatest triumphs in the occupations of Japan and Germany but suffered huge setbacks in Latin America, Vietnam, and elsewhere. With new chapters and a new introduction and epilogue, this expanded edition also traces U.S. attempts to spread democracy more recently, under presidents Clinton, Bush, and Obama, and assesses America's role in the Arab Spring.