Mitochondrial Signaling in Health and Disease

Author: Sten Orrenius
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439880026
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Mitochondria have traditionally been associated with metabolic functions; however recent research has uncovered a central role for these organelles in cell signaling, cell survival, and cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a factor in a myriad of pathophysiological conditions, including age-related neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Mitochondrial Signaling in Health and Disease examines themes essential for the maintenance of the mitochondrial redox (reduction-oxidation) energy axis. With contributions from an impressive cadre of internationally recognized scientists, the book discusses coordinated mitochondrial functions that regulate cell function by discrete signaling pathways. Topics discussed include: Electron transport and energy production Mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics Mitochondrial signaling Apoptosis and autophagy Pharmacology signaling Epigenetic signaling: mitochondrial methylation and acetylation reactions An essential resource for life and health scientists as well as pharmaceutical industry professionals, this volume highlights the importance of mitochondrial signaling and its role in establishing a harmonized communication between several cellular compartments. The information in this volume is critical to those developing mitochondrion-targeted therapies aimed at assuaging mitochondrial dysfunction or the specific factors contributing to its dysfunction.

Oxidative Stress and Oxygen Radicals

Author: Michael Breitenbach
Publisher: MDPI
ISBN: 3038421731
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Oxidative Stress and Oxygen Radicals" that was published in Biomolecules

Oxidative Stress and Redox Signalling in Parkinson s Disease

Author: Rodrigo Franco
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1782621881
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Parkinson's Disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. In order to find neuroprotective strategies, a clear understanding of the mechanisms involved in the dopaminergic death of cells that progresses the disease is needed. Oxidative stress can be defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive species and the ability to detoxify them and their intermediates or by-products. Oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA has been detected in autopsies from individuals with Parkinson’s Disease and so links can be made between oxidative stress and Parkinson’s Disease pathogenesis. This book provides a thorough review of the mechanisms by which oxidative stress and redox signalling mediate Parkinson’s Disease. Opening chapters bring readers up to speed on basic knowledge regarding oxidative stress and redox signalling, Parkinson’s Disease, and neurodegeneration before the latest advances in this field are explored in detail. Topics covered in the following chapters include the role of mitochondria, dopamine metabolism, metal homeostasis, inflammation, DNA-damage and thiol-signalling. The role of genetics and gene-environment interactions are also explored before final chapters discuss the identification of potential biomarkers for diagnosis and disease progression and the future of redox/antioxidant based therapeutics. Written by recognized experts in the field, this book will be a valuable source of information for postgraduate students and academics, clinicians, toxicologists and risk assessment groups. Importantly, it presents the current research that might later lead to redox or antioxidant – based therapeutics for Parkinson’s disease.

Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease

Author: Ronald Ross Watson
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012398467X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease documents antioxidant actions of polyphenols in protection of cells and cell organelles, critical for understanding their health-promoting actions to help the dietary supplement industry. The book begins by describing the fundamentals of absorption, metabolism and bioavailability of polyphenols, as well as the effect of microbes on polyphenol structure and function and toxicity. It then examines the role of polyphenols in the treatment of chronic disease, including vascular and cardiac health, obesity and diabetes therapy, cancer treatment and prevention, and more. Explores neuronal protection by polyphenol metabolites and their application to medical care Defines modulation of enzyme actions to help researchers see and study polyphenols’ mechanisms of action, leading to clinical applications Includes insights on polyphenols in brain and neurological functions to apply them to the wide range of aging diseases

Lipid Oxidation in Health and Disease

Author: Corinne M. Spickett
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482202867
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Oxidative modification of lipids and phospholipids—including radical damage, halogenation, and nitration—result in significant changes to the chemical properties of the molecules, which in turn have a major effect on their biochemical functions. Lipid oxidation has long been regarded as a deleterious process responsible for lipid rancidity, loss of function, and generation of toxic products. However in recent years, research has also focused on the non-detrimental physiological and pathological effects of these chemical reactions. Lipid Oxidation in Health and Disease provides an up-to-date review of the role of oxidized lipid products in physiological and pathophysiological processes. Covering the diverse topics that contribute to research in this important field, this book explores: The mechanisms of lipid oxidation, both enzymatic and non-enzymatic Antioxidant defenses and lipid oxidation Lipid oxidation products and cell signaling The roles of oxidized lipids in specific diseases—including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and metabolic disorders, as well as in cancer Drug targeting and the therapeutic potential of oxidized lipids Accurate measurement of the formation of lipid oxidation products and investigation of their biological effects and roles in disease are critical to biomedical science and new targeted therapeutics. Written by acknowledged experts in the field, this book provides a broad survey of both established knowledge and recent findings on the action of oxidized lipid products on cell signaling and gene expression in health and disease.

Mitochondrial Function in Lung Health and Disease

Author: Viswanathan Natarajan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493908294
Format: PDF, Docs
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Mitochondria, often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell, generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by oxidative phosphorylation or OXPHOS, and maintain cellular homeostasis. In addition to generating ATP, mitochondria are involved in regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, free radical production, innate immune responses and apoptosis. Mitochondrial Function in Lung Health and Disease fills the current gap in the literature and outlines the growing clinical relevance of mitochondrial dysfunction. Currently, there is no overview on the role of mitochondria in pulmonary diseases and this volume focuses on the mitochondrial metabolism, redox signaling, and mechanisms of mitochondrial pathways in lung injury, inflammation, repair and remodeling. Furthermore, in addition to their well-recognized role in cellular energy production and apoptosis, mitochondria appear to play a role in many respiratory diseases and lung cancer. Chapters are written by top notch researchers and clinicians and outline the evidence for mitochondrial biogenesis in inhalational lung injury, COPD and asthma.

Oxidative Phosphorylation in Health and Disease

Author: Jan A.M. Smeitink
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306482328
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Mitochondrial diseases are often hard to diagnose. From the time they were first researched without animal models, patients of mitochondrial diseases were of equal interest to both clinical and basic scientists. With the new research done, this book includes updates on the normal structure, function, and molecular biology of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, information on traditional diagnostical methodologies, and an overview of the diagnostic promise of new technologies. The hypermetabolism of Luft disease, although only seen twice, is also studied. There are critical reviews of symptoms and signs associated with syndromes, as well as updates on the genetic defects of either the mitochondrial or the nuclear genome responsible for many disorders.

Mitochondria in Health and Disease

Author: Carolyn D. Berdanier
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420028847
Format: PDF, ePub
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It was once assumed that mitochondrial diseases were rare and that few people were affected. As knowledge has grown about these organelles and their function, it became clear that mitochondrial malfunction could be linked to several chronic diseases. Diabetes has been associated with DNA mutation and can cause mutation itself. This text discusses findings involving the effects of disease on mitochondrial number, mitogenesis, and the base sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Experts discuss their study of mitochondria and what happens when it malfunctions. This book also explores the idea that mutated mitochondrial DNA can result in disease, and vice versa.

Hydrogen Peroxide Metabolism in Health and Disease

Author: Margreet C M Vissers
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351650866
Format: PDF
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Much of the biology of oxidative stress and oxidative signalling centres on the generation and handling of hydrogen peroxide. The overall aim for this book would be to provide an insightful and useful forum to assist with the understanding of the relevance of hydrogen peroxide generation and how this is managed in human biology. The target audience would be those who currently have an interest in the generation of ROS, but who do not have expertise in chemistry, as well as those experts in the chemistry of oxidative stress, but without detailed understanding of the biologically relevant setting. We would aim to bridge the gap in understanding between chemistry and biology.

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease

Author: Shampa Chatterjee
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128054026
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease: Emerging Roles of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Immune Support provides a comprehensive description of the various pathways by which the vertebrate immune system works, the signals that trigger immune response and how fnew and novel nutraceuticals and functional foods, can be used to contain inflammation and also to boost immunity and immune health. Inflammation is a tool to fight pathogens and the vertebrate immune system has a very complex network of cells to achieve this. However inflammation that goes awry is also the leding cause of several diseases ranging from cardiovascular diseases to diabetes. This book covers the entire gamut from the various cellular players in the inflammation-immune response to its ramifications in terms of protection against pathogens as well as in onset of metabolic, aging and auto-immune related diseases. Finally, the balancing role of dietary nutrients between host defence and immune support is also showcased. The first three scetions explain the various components of the immune system and their modes of activation. The fourth section deals with the ramifications of a robust and execessive inflammatory response. The fifth section is focused on the association between nutrition and immunity and how deficiencies in certain nutrients may affect immunocompetence. The sixth section chapters represent a vision of paradigm shifts within the field and discusses possible future directions. This bool will be a valuable reference for researchers studying immune health either in academia, or in the nutraceutical or functional food industries. Product developers in nutraceutical, supplement, functional food, and health food companies will also appreciate the information presented here. Conceptualizes the key features in natural products which can boost immune function and immune health Explains the intricate mechanistic aspects and balance behind immune health Presents the pathophysiology of several diseases associated with immune system disruption