Mixture Toxicity

Author: Cornelis A. M. van Gestel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439830093
Format: PDF, Docs
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In the last decade and a half, great progress has been made in the development of concepts and models for mixture toxicity, both in human and environmental toxicology. However, due to their different protection goals, developments have often progressed in parallel but with little integration. Arguably the first book to clearly link ecotoxicology and classic human toxicology, Mixture Toxicity: Linking Approaches from Ecological and Human Toxicology incorporates extensive reviews of exposure to toxicants, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, toxicity of mixtures, and risk assessment. The book examines developments in both fields, compares and contrasts their current state of the art, and identifies where one field can learn from the other. Each chapter provides an essential overview of the state of the art in both human and ecotoxicological mixture risk assessment, focusing on the work published in the last fifteen years. The coverage progresses from exposure to risk assessment, at each step identifying the special complications typically raised by mixtures. Based on in-depth discussions among specialists representing different disciplines and approaches, the chapters each address: Exposure — how to quantify the amounts of chemicals that may enter the living organism Kinetics, dynamics, and metabolism — how the chemicals enter an organism, travel within the organism, how they are metabolized and reach the target site, and explain development of toxicity with time Toxicity — what are the chemicals’ detrimental effects on the organism Test design and complex mixture characterization — how chemicals interact, how to measure effects of mixtures, and how to identify responsible chemicals Risk assessment — how to assess for risks in humans and the environment An unusual combination of different points of view on exposure to and risk assessment of chemical mixtures, this book summarizes current knowledge on combined effects of toxicant mixtures, information that is generally only available in a very fragmented form as individual journal papers. It identifies possible crosslinks and includes recommendations for mutual developments that can improve the state of knowledge on mixture toxicity and ultimately lead to better and more integrated risk assessment.

Environmental Life Cycle Costing

Author: David Hunkeler
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420054732
Format: PDF, ePub
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Balances Scientific and Economic Points of View to Thoroughly Address Management Issues Responding to the need for clarification and benchmarks, Environmental Life Cycle Costing provides the fundamental basis on which to establish a definitive methodology. Clearly defining environmental LCC, this book balances scientific and economic points of view and thoroughly addresses the management perspective. Demonstrates the Process From Problem Definition to Analysis, to Presentation The book focuses on environmental LCC but also analyzes conventional LCC and societal LCC, providing case studies for each. It presents the link between life cycle costing and life cycle assessment and then explores public, private, and societal options. The book also explains all components of the method using the cross-cutting example of a washing machine. It also provides categorizations that permit the method to be adapted or streamlined as a function of the time available to the practitioner. Case study boxes demonstrate the process for carrying out an LCC, from problem definition to analysis and ultimate presentation to the decision maker. Experts Integrate Conventional Thinking with Emerging Ideas Environmental LCC summarizes all costs associated with the life cycle of a product regardless of who bears those costs. It includes present and future money flows as well as those to be internalized in the decision relevant future. A collaboration of experts at the forefront of research, this book ties conventional thinking on life cycle costs into emerging theory and practice by including environmental and social cost analyses and linking LCC to the environmental and social pillars of sustainability.

Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators

Author: David Fischer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118852699
Format: PDF
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Pollinators play a vital role in ecosystem health and are essential to ensuring food security. With declines in both managed and wild pollinator populations in recent years, scientists and regulators have sought answers to this problem and have explored implementing steps to protect pollinator populations now and for the future. Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators focuses on the role pesticides play in impacting bee populations and looks to develop a risk assessment process, along with the data to inform that process, to better assess the potential risks that can accompany the use of pesticide products. Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators opens with two chapters that provide a biological background of both Apis and non-Apis species of pollinators. Chapters then present an overview of the general regulatory risk assessment process and decision-making processes. The book then discusses the core elements of a risk assessment, including exposure estimation, laboratory testing, and field testing. The book concludes with chapters on statistical and modeling tools, and proposed additional research that may be useful in developing the ability to assess the impacts of pesticide use on pollinator populations. Summarizing the current state of the science surrounding risk assessment for Apis and non-Apis species, Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators is a timely work that will be of great use to the environmental science and agricultural research communities. Assesses pesticide risk to native and managed pollinators Summarizes the state of the science in toxicity testing and risk assessment Provides valuable biological overviews of both Apis and non-Apis pollinators Develops a plausible overall risk assessment framework for regulatory decision making Looks towards a globally harmonized approach for pollinator toxicity and risk assessment

Freshwater Bivalve Ecotoxicology

Author: Jerry L. Farris
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420042856
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Responding to the growing need for an aggressive yet conservative approach to evaluating mussel populations, Freshwater Bivalve Ecotoxicology provides a collective review of the techniques and approaches for assessing contaminant impact on freshwater ecosystems. The editors incorporate coverage of research topics and management issues from a cross-section of scientists in the field. They explore current advances in general monitoring of population responses to stressors, fundamental concepts of ecotoxicology specific to burrowing bivalves, and useful insights that offer direction and priority for resolving specific problems challenging protection and conservation efforts. This book lays the groundwork with discussions of topics such as impact assessment, toxicokinetics, biomarkers, and pollution tolerance. The authors then explore fundamental concepts surrounding responses measured in freshwater bivalves as a consequence of chemical exposures or accumulated contaminants in target organs or tissues. They highlight the difficulties encountered with the laboratory culture of these organisms for toxicity testing or other controlled experiments, and examine the use of surrogate test organisms to relate sensitivities of response and reduce pressure on already impacted fauna. The book also reviews innovative field research using in situ bivalve toxicity testing, discusses effects-oriented tissue contaminant assessment, and concludes with threefour specific laboratory or combined field/laboratory ecotoxicology studies. A summary of methods from more than 75 laboratory toxicity studies conducted with freshwater mussels, the book provides an overview of a standardized method for conducting water-only acute and chronic laboratory toxicity tests with glochidia juvenile freshwater mussels. It focuses on studies that report measured contaminant treatments, had robust experimental designs, including replication of control and contaminant treatments, and were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The resulting array of viewpoints provides a framework that can be used to establish priorities in the rehabilitation and management of freshwater ecosystems.

Soil Ecotoxicology

Author: Joseph Tarradellas
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781566701341
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Soils are receptacles for a wide range of hazardous chemicals generated by human activities. Whether or not this contamination is deliberate, accurate toxicity assessments are important for health and economic reasons. Soil Ecotoxicology discusses the sources, fate, and transport of hazardous chemicals in soils. The fate (biodegradation and modeling) and the potential impacts of pesticides on soil ecosystems are emphasized, and methodologies for performing toxicity assessments are provided.

Ecological Assessment of Selenium in the Aquatic Environment

Author: Peter M. Chapman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439826781
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Based on the work and contributions of 46 scientists, managers, and policymakers, Ecological Assessment of Selenium in the Aquatic Environment documents the state of the science and explores how to use this information when assessing and managing the environmental effects of Se. A focused discussion on the fate and effects of Se in aquatic ecosystems, the book reviews: Past and current problems related to Se in aquatic environments, together with lessons learned, and provides a generalized conceptual model Environmental partitioning, in particular Se speciation leading to its entry into the food chain, and provides conceptual models specific to environmental partitioning. Se bioaccumulation and trophic transfer from the physical environment (i.e., water-column particulates), and from primary producers to herbivores to carnivores, including the influence of modifying ecological factors Toxic effects from Se, in particular body burdens and their relationship to toxicity Filled with practical guidance and concise information on how to conduct selenium risk assessments in the aquatic environment, the book contains the latest information on assessment techniques, elucidates the current state of contamination in industrialized countries, and raises awareness for developing nations. Written by leading experts, it describes best practices for designing experiments to collect information on aquatic effects and trophic transfer of selenium for risk assessments, presents numerous case studies both domestic and international, and gives insight as to how current and future ecosystems may or may not be affected.

Wildlife Ecotoxicology

Author: John E. Elliott
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387894324
Format: PDF, ePub
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Many books have now been published in the broad field of environmental toxicology. However, to date, none of have presented the often fascinating stories of the wildlife science, and the steps along the way from discovery of problems caused by environmental pollutants to the regulatory and non-regulatory efforts to address the problems. This book provides case by case examinations of how toxic chemical effects on wildlife have brought about policy and regulatory decisions, and positive changes in environmental conditions. Wild animal stories, whether they are about the disappearance of charismatic top predators, or of grossly deformed embryos or frogs, provide powerful symbols that can and have captured the public's imagination and have resulted in increased awareness by decision makers. It is the intent of this book to present factual and balanced overviews and summaries of the science and the subsequent regulatory processes that followed to effect change (or not). We cover a variety of chemicals and topics beginning with an update of the classic California coastal DDT story of eggshell thinning and avian reproduction to more recent cases, such as the veterinarian pharmaceutical that has brought three species of Asian vultures to the brink of extinction. Researchers, regulators, educators, NGOs and the general public will find valuable insights into the processes and mechanisms involved both in environmental scientific investigation and in efforts to effect positive change.

Population Level Ecological Risk Assessment

Author: Lawrence W. Barnthouse
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420053333
Format: PDF, Docs
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Most ecological risk assessments consider the risk to individual organisms or organism-level attributes. From a management perspective, however, risks to population-level attributes and processes are often more relevant. Despite many published calls for population risk assessment and the abundance of available scientific research and technical tools assessing risks to populations, risk assessors worldwide still have difficulty determining how population level considerations can be integrated into environmental decision-making. Population-Level Ecological Risk Assessment establishes a framework for goals, methods, and data needs for different assessment applications and for integrating population-level risk assessment into risk management decisions. Beginning with a summary of legal, regulatory, business, and other contexts, the book presents population-level ecological risk assessment as an internationally recognized, science-based tool and offers specific recommendations for using this tool to support environmental management decisions. It gives clear, explicit, operational population assessment definitions and explains the relevance of density dependence, genetics, and spatial considerations, as well as applicable lessons from conservation biology and natural resource management. The authors provide a "tool box" of empirical and modeling methods and describe the general approaches, assumptions, data requirements, strengths, and limitations of each method. They establish a working foundation for designing and conducting population-level ecological risk assessments consistent with North American, European, and Japanese risk management approaches. The book concludes by highlighting key considerations needed to improve the scientific quality and interpretation of assessments. Detailed appendices include examples of population-level assessment approaches applicable to specific environmental management contexts, a modeling case study, and a supplemental reading list.

Valuation of Ecological Resources

Author: Ralph G. Stahl, Jr.
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420062632
Format: PDF, Docs
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Choosing the optimal management option requires environmental risk managers and decision makers to evaluate diverse, and not always congruent, needs and interests of multiple stakeholders. Understanding the trade-offs of different options as well as their legal, economic, scientific, and technological implications is critical to performing accurate assessments and making sound decisions. Valuation of Ecological Resources: Integration of Ecology and Socioeconomics in Environmental Decision Making examines various alternatives for determining the “value” of complex ecological resources. The book discusses how ecology, sociology, and economics influence environmental management decisions. The book further explores the scientific underpinnings of ecological valuation and the roles of regulatory and legislative bodies in the decision-making process. A series of case studies demonstrates the utility of various information sets, tools, and analytical frameworks. Summarizes the conclusions reached by the Ecological Risk Assessment Advisory Group during special workshops conducted by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Written by leading experts from industry, academia, and environmental regulatory agencies, this new text is an excellent resource for self-study as well as for courses in industrial ecology, environmental management, ecological risk assessment, environmental policy, and strategies for sustainability and corporate responsibility.