Modelling Uncertainty in Flood Forecasting Systems

Author: Shreeda Maskey
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203026829
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Like all natural hazards, flooding is a complex and inherently uncertain phenomenon. Despite advances in developing flood forecasting models and techniques, the uncertainty in forecasts remains unavoidable. This uncertainty needs to be acknowledged, and uncertainty estimation in flood forecasting provides a rational basis for risk-based criteria. This book presents the development and applications of various methods based on probablity and fuzzy set theories for modelling uncertainty in flood forecasting systems. In particular, it presents a methodology for uncertainty assessment using disaggregation of time series inputs in the framework of both the Monte Carlo method and the Fuzzy Extention Principle. It reports an improvement in the First Order Second Moment method, using second degree reconstruction, and derives qualitative scales for the interpretation of qualitative uncertainty. Application is to flood forecasting models for the Klodzko catchment in POland and the Loire River in France. Prospects for the hybrid techniques of uncertainty modelling and probability-possibility transformations are also explored and reported.

Applied Uncertainty Analysis for Flood Risk Management

Author: Keith Beven
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783263121
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume provides an introduction for flood risk management practitioners, up-to-date methods for analysis of uncertainty and its use in risk-based decision making. It addresses decision making for both short-term (real-time forecasting) and long-term (flood risk planning under change) situations. It aims primarily at technical practitioners involved in flood risk analysis and flood warning, including hydrologists, engineers, flood modelers, risk analysts and those involved in the design and operation of flood warning systems. Many experienced practitioners are now expected to modify their way of working to fit into the new philosophy of flood risk management. This volume helps them to undertake that task with appropriate attention to the surrounding uncertainties. The book will also interest and benefit researchers and graduate students hoping to improve their knowledge of modern uncertainty analysis. Contents:Introduction:Flood Risk Management: Decision Making Under Uncertainty (Jim W Hall)Use of Models in Flood Risk Management (Keith Beven)Theoretical Perspectives:A Framework for Uncertainty Analysis (Keith Beven)Classical Approaches for Statistical Inference in Model Calibration with Uncertainty (R E Chandler)Formal Bayes Methods for Model Calibration with Uncertainty (Jonathan Rougier)The GLUE Methodology for Model Calibration with Uncertainty (Keith Beven)Uncertainties in Flood Modelling and Risk Analysis:Uncertainty in Rainfall Inputs (R E Chandler, V S Isham, P J Northrop, H S Wheater, C J Onof and N A Leith)Uncertainty in Flood Frequency Analysis (Thomas R Kjeldsen, Rob Lamb and Sarka D Blazkova)Minimising Uncertainty in Statistical Analysis of Extreme Values (C Keef)Uncertainty in Flood Inundation Modelling (Paul D Bates, Florian Pappenberger and Renata J Romanowicz)Flood Defence Reliability Analysis (Pieter van Gelder and Han Vrijling)Uncertainties in Flood Modelling in Urban Areas (Slobodan Djordjević, Zoran Vojinović, Richard Dawson and Dragan A Savić)The Many Uncertainties in Flood Loss Assessments (John Chatterton, Edmund Penning-Rowsell and Sally Priest)Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of Current and Future Flood Risk in the Thames Estuary (Jim W Hall, Hamish Harvey and Owen Tarrant)Uncertainties in Real-Time Flood Forecasting:Operational Hydrologic Ensemble Forecasting (Albrecht H Weerts, Dong-Jun Seo, Micha Werner and John Schaake)A Data-Based Mechanistic Modelling Approach to Real-Time Flood Forecasting (Peter C Young, Renata J Romanowicz and Keith Beven)Uncertainty Estimation in Fluvial Flood Forecasting Applications (Kevin Sene, Albrecht H Weerts, Keith Beven, Robert J Moore, Chris Whitlow, Stefan Laeger and Richard Cross)Case Study: Decision Making for Flood Forecasting in the US National Weather Service (Robert Hartman and John Schaake)Quantifying and Reducing Uncertainties in Operational Forecasting: Examples from the Delft FEWS Forecasting System (Micha Werner, Paolo Reggiani and Albrecht H Weerts)Real-Time Coastal Flood Forecasting (Kevin Horsburgh and Jonathan Flowerdew)Uncertainties in Long-Term Change in Flood Risk:Detecting Long-Term Change in Flood Risk (Cíntia B Uvo and Robin T Clarke)Detecting Changes in Winter Precipitation Extremes and Fluvial Flood Risk (Robert L Wilby, Hayley J Fowler and Bill Donovan)Flood Risk in Eastern Australia — Climate Variability and Change (Stewart W Franks)Communicating Uncertainties:Translating Uncertainty in Flood Risk Science (Hazel Faulkner, Meghan Alexander and David Leedal) Readership: Hydrologists, civil engineers, meteorologists, flood risk managers, environmental scientists, hydraulic engineers and consultants. Key Features:Dedicated to the important problem of uncertainty in flood risk analysisTakes an applied perspective with a range of case studiesProvides a comprehensive coverage of uncertainties in flood risk analysis, including flood forecasting, simulation modeling and impacts assessmentKeywords:Floods;Flood Risk Management;Uncertainty Estimation;Flood Frequency;Rainfall Models

Stochastic Flood Forecasting System

Author: Renata Romanowicz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319188542
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book presents the novel formulation and development of a Stochastic Flood Forecasting System, using the Middle River Vistula basin in Poland as a case study. The system has a modular structure, including models describing the rainfall-runoff and snow-melt processes for tributary catchments and the transformation of a flood wave within the reach. The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the elements of the study system are performed at both the calibration and verification stages. The spatial and temporal variability of catchment land use and river flow regime based on analytical studies and measurements is presented. A lumped parameter approximation to the distributed modelling of river flow is developed for the purpose of flow forecasting. Control System based emulators (Hammerstein-Wiener models) are applied to on-line data assimilation. Medium-range probabilistic weather forecasts (ECMWF) and on-line observations of temperature, precipitation and water levels are used to prolong the forecast lead time. The potential end-users will also benefit from a description of social vulnerability to natural hazards in the study area.

Improving Flood Prediction Assimilating Uncertain Crowdsourced Data into Hydrologic and Hydraulic Models

Author: Maurizio Mazzoleni
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351652567
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In recent years, the continued technological advances have led to the spread of low-cost sensors and devices supporting crowdsourcing as a way to obtain observations of hydrological variables in a more distributed way than the classic static physical sensors. The main advantage of using these type of sensors is that they can be used not only by technicians but also by regular citizens. However, due to their relatively low reliability and varying accuracy in time and space, crowdsourced observations have not been widely integrated in hydrological and/or hydraulic models for flood forecasting applications. Instead, they have generally been used to validate model results against observations, in post-event analyses. This research aims to investigate the benefits of assimilating the crowdsourced observations, coming from a distributed network of heterogeneous physical and social (static and dynamic) sensors, within hydrological and hydraulic models, in order to improve flood forecasting. The results of this study demonstrate that crowdsourced observations can significantly improve flood prediction if properly integrated in hydrological and hydraulic models. This study provides technological support to citizen observatories of water, in which citizens not only can play an active role in information capturing, evaluation and communication, leading to improved model forecasts and better flood management.

Flood Warning Forecasting and Emergency Response

Author: Kevin Sene
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540778535
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Recent flood events in Europe, the USA and elsewhere have shown the devastating impact that flooding can have on people and property. Flood warning and forecasting systems provide a well-established way to help to reduce the effects of flooding by allowing people to be evacuated from areas at risk, and for measures to be taken to reduce damage to property. With sufficient warning, temporary defences (sandbags, flood gates etc) can also be installed, and river control structures operated to mitigate the effects of flooding. Many countries and local authorities now operate some form of flood warning system, and the underlying technology requires knowledge across a range of technical areas, including rainfall and tidal detection systems, river and coastal flood forecasting models, flood warning dissemination systems, and emergency response procedures. This book provides a comprehensive account of the flood forecasting, warning and emergency response process, including techniques for predicting the development of flood events, and for issuing appropriate warnings. Related topics, such as telemetry and information systems, and flood warning economics, are also discussed. For perhaps the first time, this book brings together in a single volume the many strands of this interesting multidisciplinary topic, and will serve as a reference for researchers, policy makers and engineers. The material on meteorological, hydrological and coastal modelling and monitoring may also be of interest to a wider audience.

Uncertainties in Environmental Modelling and Consequences for Policy Making

Author: Philippe Baveye
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048126363
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Mathematical modelling has become in recent years an essential tool for the prediction of environmental change and for the development of sustainable policies. Yet, many of the uncertainties associated with modelling efforts appear poorly understood by many, especially by policy makers. This book attempts for the first time to cover the full range of issues related to model uncertainties, from the subjectivity of setting up a conceptual model of a given system, all the way to communicating the nature of model uncertainties to non-scientists and accounting for model uncertainties in policy decisions. Theoretical chapters, providing background information on specific steps in the modelling process and in the adoption of models by end-users, are complemented by illustrative case studies dealing with soils and global climate change. All the chapters are authored by recognized experts in their respective disciplines, and provide a timely and uniquely comprehensive coverage of an important field.

River Basin Modelling for Flood Risk Mitigation

Author: Donald Knight
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439824702
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Flooding accounts for one-third of natural disasters worldwide and for over half the deaths which occur as a result of natural disasters. As the frequency and volume of flooding increases, as a result of climate change, there is a new urgency amongst researchers and professionals working in flood risk management. River Basin Modelling for Flood Risk Mitigation brings together thirty edited papers by leading experts who gathered for the European Union’s Advanced Study Course at the University of Birmingham, UK. The scope of the course ranged from issues concerning the protection of life, to river restoration and wetland management. A variety of topics is covered in the book including climate change, hydro-informatics, hydro-meterology, river flow forecasting systems and dam-break modelling. The approach is broad, but integrated, providing an attractive and informative package that will satisfy researchers and professionals, while offering a sound introduction to students in Engineering and Geography.

Risk Reliability Uncertainty and Robustness of Water Resource Systems

Author: Janos J. Bogardi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139432245
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Risk, Reliability, Uncertainty, and Robustness of Water Resource Systems is based on the Third George Kovacs Colloquium organized by the International Hydrological Programme (UNESCO) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. Thirty-five leading scientists with international reputations provide reviews of topical areas of research on water resource systems, including aspects of extreme hydrological events: floods and droughts; water quantity and quality dams; reservoirs and hydraulic structures; evaluating sustainability and climate change impacts. As well as discussing essential challenges and research directions, the book will assist in applying theoretical methods to the solution of practical problems in water resources. The authors are multi-disciplinary, stemming from such areas as: hydrology, geography, civil, environmental and agricultural engineering, forestry, systems sciences, operations research, mathematics, physics and geophysics, ecology and atmospheric sciences. This review volume will be valuable for graduate students, scientists, consultants, administrators, and practising hydrologists and water managers.

Flood Forecasting

Author: Thomas E Adams
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128018593
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Flood Forecasting: A Global Perspective describes flood forecast systems and operations as they currently exist at national and regional centers around the globe, focusing on the technical aspects of flood forecast systems. This book includes the details of data flow, what data is used, quality control, the hydrologic and hydraulic models used, and the unique problems of each country or system, such as glacial dam failures, ice jams, sparse data, and ephemeral streams and rivers. Each chapter describes the system, including details about its strengths and weaknesses, and covers lessons learned. This helpful resource facilitates sharing knowledge that will lead to improvements of existing systems and provides a valuable reference to those wishing to develop new forecast systems by drawing on best practices. Covers global systems allowing readers to see a worldwide perspective with different approaches used by existing flood forecast systems Provides historical coverage allowing readers to understand why forecast systems have developed as they have and to see how specific systems have dealt with common problems encountered Presents a vision of what appears to be the future of hydrologic forecasting and difficulties facing hydrologic forecasting Provides a helpful resource to facilitate improvements to existing systems based on a best practices approach

Rainfall Runoff Modelling

Author: K. J. Beven
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 047071459X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Rainfall-Runoff Modelling: The Primer Second Edition focuses on predicting hydrographs using models based on data and on representations of hydrological process. Dealing with the history of the development of rainfall-runoff models, uncertainty in mode predictions, good and bad practice and ending with a look at how to predict future catchment hydrological responses this book provides an essential underpinning of rainfall-runoff modelling topics."--pub. desc.