Photochemistry and Photophysics of Coordination Compounds II

Author: Vincenzo Balzani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540733493
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Photochemistry (a term that broadly speaking includes photophysics) is abranchofmodernsciencethatdealswiththeinteractionoflightwithmatter and lies at the crossroadsof chemistry, physics, and biology. However, before being a branch of modern science, photochemistry was (and still is today), an extremely important natural phenomenon. When God said: “Let there be light”, photochemistry began to operate, helping God to create the world as wenowknowit.Itislikelythatphotochemistrywasthesparkfortheoriginof life on Earth and played a fundamental role in the evolution of life. Through the photosynthetic process that takes place in green plants, photochemistry is responsible for the maintenance of all living organisms. In the geological past photochemistry caused the accumulation of the deposits of coal, oil, and naturalgasthat wenowuseasfuels.Photochemistryisinvolved inthecontrol ofozoneinthestratosphereandinagreatnumber ofenvironmentalprocesses thatoccurintheatmosphere,inthesea,andonthesoil.Photochemistryisthe essenceoftheprocessofvisionandcausesavarietyofbehavioralresponsesin living organisms. Photochemistry as a science is quite young; we only need to go back less than one century to ?nd its early pioneer [1]. The concept of coordination compound is also relatively young; it was established in 1892, when Alfred Werner conceived his theory of metal complexes [2]. Since then, the terms coordination compound and metal complex have been used as synonyms, even if in the last 30 years, coordination chemistry has extended its scope to the binding ofall kinds of substrates [3, 4].

On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language

Author: Giovanni Acampora
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642354882
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
One of the most successful methodology that arose from the worldwide diffusion of Fuzzy Logic is Fuzzy Control. After the first attempts dated in the seventies, this methodology has been widely exploited for controlling many industrial components and systems. At the same time, and very independently from Fuzzy Logic or Fuzzy Control, the birth of the Web has impacted upon almost all aspects of computing discipline. Evolution of Web, Web2.0 and Web 3.0 has been making scenarios of ubiquitous computing much more feasible; consequently information technology has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. What happens when Fuzzy Logic meets Web technology? Interesting results might come out, as you will discover in this book. Fuzzy Mark-up Language is a son of this synergistic view, where some technological issues of Web are re-interpreted taking into account the transparent notion of Fuzzy Control, as discussed here. The concept of a Fuzzy Control that is conceived and modeled in terms of a native web wisdom represents another step towards the last picture of Pervasive Web Intelligence.

Vegetation Climate Interaction

Author: Jonathan Adams
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540324925
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
An accessible account of the ways in which the world's plant life affects the climate. It covers everything from tiny local microclimates created by plants to their effect on a global scale. If you’ve ever wondered how vegetation can create clouds, haze and rain, or how plants have an impact on the composition of greenhouse gases, then this book is required reading.

Hierarchical Micro Nanostructured Materials

Author: Weiping Cai
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439876835
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Materials: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications presents the latest fabrication, properties, and applications of hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials in two sections—powders and arrays. After a general introduction to hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials, the first section begins with a detailed discussion of the methods of mass production for hierarchical micro/nanostructured powders, including structure-directed solvothermal routes, template-etching strategies, and electrospinning technologies. It then proceeds to address structurally enhanced adsorption and photocatalytic performances. The second section describes strategies for the fabrication of hierarchical micro/nanostructured object arrays and their devices, such as modified colloidal lithographies-based solution and electrodeposition. It also examines the structure-dependent properties and performances of the micro/nanostructured arrays, including surface wettability, optical properties, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects, and gas-sensing performances. In its cutting-edge coverage, Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Materials: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications explores the use of hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials in environmental remediation and detection devices, commenting on future trends and applications in catalysis, integrated nanophotonics, optical devices, super-high density storage media, sensors, nanobiotechnology, SERS substrates, and more.

Adipose Tissue and Cancer

Author: Mikhail G. Kolonin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461476607
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Recent studies have shown that cells from adipose tissue are capable of trafficking to tumors, thus enabling paracrine action of adipokines from within the tumor microenvironment. Increased tumor vascularization, immune system suppression and direct effects on malignant cell survival and proliferation have been investigated as mechanisms regulated by adipokines. The goal of this book is to discuss data pointing to the role of adipose tissue in cancer and to dissect individual mechanisms through which adipose tissue excess or restriction could influence cancer progression.

Handbook of Neurochemistry

Author: Abel Lajtha
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461571723
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Anyone who has any contact with mental patients, old or young, or their families, or just visits a mental hospital or school for the retarded, is aware of the tremendous suffering caused by malfunctioning of the brain. The func tion of no other organ is so crucial for our everyday life, our proper func tioning, indeed our happiness, and no other illness causes as much anguish to patients or their families as mental illness. It is surprising and sad, therefore, how little effort has been devoted to research in this area; more so because such research is the only hope to ameliorate this suffering, or, to speak in the language of politics or economics, to decrease the enormous sums that we spend on trying to help our patients, with what is must generally be agreed are the most primitive and inadequate methods of treatment. Clearly, since functions of the brain are vital not only in illness, but in health, pathology is not the only area of concern to neurochemists, but it is an area that urgently needs neurochemical contributions. Progress in this field has been slower than in other areas of neurochemistry, and it seems that solutions in this field are very elusive. The reason for this is that the experimental approach is especially difficult in conditions specific for humans, or specific for complex behavior.

Advances in Information Retrieval Theory

Author: Leif Azzopardi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642044166
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Theory of Information Retrieval, ICTIR 2009, held in Cambridge, UK, in September 2009. The 18 revised full papers, 14 short papers, and 11 posters presented together with one invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from 82 submissions. The papers are categorized into four main themes: novel IR models, evaluation, efficiency, and new perspectives in IR. Twenty-one papers fall into the general theme of novel IR models, ranging from various retrieval models, query and term selection models, Web IR models, developments in novelty and diversity, to the modeling of user aspects. There are four papers on new evaluation methodologies, e.g., modeling score distributions, evaluation over sessions, and an axiomatic framework for XML retrieval evaluation. Three papers focus on the issue of efficiency and offer solutions to improve the tractability of PageRank, data cleansing practices for training classifiers, and approximate search for distributed IR. Finally, four papers look into new perspectives of IR and shed light on some new emerging areas of interest, such as the application and adoption of quantum theory in IR.

U S Social Welfare Reform

Author: Richard K. Caputo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441976741
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
U. S. Social Welfare Reform examines pivotal changes in social welfare for low-income families in the United States between 1981, the advent of the Reagan administration, and 2008, the end of the G.W. Bush administration. It focuses on the change from the Federal-state open entitlement Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program to the time-limited state run Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program which Congress authorized with passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996. The book also focuses on the development of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program, enacted in 1975 against the backdrop of failed efforts to nationalize AFDC which aimed at providing a basic income to all poor families, but which blossomed with continued bipartisan support in the 1990s. This book also explores alternative strategies to assist low-income families, including job training programs. It present original research on the educational and economic well-being of youth from low-income families who participated in government sponsored job training programs in the late 1970 and early 1980s. The book seeks a middle ground between general and technical social policy texts. It provides more depth than is available in the more general social policy texts. Further, while the more comprehensive texts often rely on government documents and reports relying on Current Population Survey data to profile program use, this book relies on panel data from the National Longitudinal Surveys and presents original research that builds upon prior related research and scholarship about the role of the federal government in social welfare provisioning in general and AFDC/TANF and EITC use in particular and on school-to-work transition programs. It presents related technical material in a narrative style better suited to professionals and policy makers who may lack expertise in quantitative analysis.

Lean Agile Acceptance Test Driven Development

Author: Ken Pugh
Publisher: Pearson Education
ISBN: 9780321719447
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Within the framework of Acceptance Test-Driven-Development (ATDD), customers, developers, and testers collaborate to create acceptance tests that thoroughly describe how software should work from the customer’s viewpoint. By tightening the links between customers and agile teams, ATDD can significantly improve both software quality and developer productivity. This is the first start-to-finish, real-world guide to ATDD for every agile project participant. Leading agile consultant Ken Pugh begins with a dialogue among a customer, developer, and tester, explaining the “what, why, where, when, and how” of ATDD and illuminating the experience of participating in it. Next, Pugh presents a practical, complete reference to each facet of ATDD, from creating simple tests to evaluating their results. He concludes with five diverse case studies, each identifying a realistic set of problems and challenges with proven solutions. Coverage includes • How to develop software with fully testable requirements • How to simplify and componentize tests and use them to identify missing logic • How to test user interfaces, service implementations, and other tricky elements of a software system • How to identify requirements that are best handled outside software • How to present test results, evaluate them, and use them to assess a project’s overall progress • How to build acceptance tests that are mutually beneficial for development organizations and customers • How to scale ATDD to large projects