Monetary Issues in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Author: Simon Gray
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484337603
Format: PDF
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This paper documents the main themes covered in two seminars (December 2011 and September 2012) on monetary policy and implementation at the IMF—Middle East Center for Economics and Finance, and includes country case studies. Against the backdrop of the global financial crisis and swings in cross-border capital flows, operational frameworks have become more flexible, and liquidity management has impacted the relationship between the policy rate corridor and market rates. The balance sheet structure of central banks in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) shows differences between oil exporters and others, while a few countries have exhibited notable changes since early 2011. Collateral now has a significant financial stability function. Although only one MENA country is part of the G20, implementation of the Basel III bank capital adequacy and liquidity rules will most likely impact banks’ way of doing business in MENA countries, even if indirectly.

Are Banks Really Lazy Evidence from Middle East and North Africa

Author: Simon Gray
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484387007
Format: PDF, Mobi
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We investigate whether low loan-to-deposit (LTD) ratios and high levels of reserve balances at the central bank (or holdings of government securities) are a reflection of policy-driven factors compared to commonly cited reasons of reluctance to lend or sometimes weak investment demand in uncertain environments. We examine changes to central bank (CB) balance sheet structures as well as commercial banks’ flow of funds over the period 2007–2012. First, Middle East and North Africa (MENA) CBs play an active role in view of their size that is very large with respect to their economies compared to CBs in advanced economies. Second, under exchange rate targeting, most MENA CB balance sheets are asset-driven, holding foreign exchange (FX) reserves to support the exchange rate policy and resulting in lower loan-to-deposit (LTD) ratios in the case of unsterilized increases in FX. Third, CB policy decisions seem to be accompanied by an increase in commercial bank reserve money balances, with ensuing reduction in the LTD. Finally, if governments meet their financing needs from the banking system—whether from commercial banks or by monetary financing—commercial bank balance sheets will tend to expand, resulting in lower LTD ratios. Our analysis suggests that government and CB actions may also drive the demand for and supply of credit, which are traditionally attributed to the behavior of banks and non-financial corporates and households only. The findings offer a different interpretation of changes in CB and banks’ balance sheets, with direct implications for LTD, calling to exercise caution in recommending policy action which aim at propping up LTD to ‘appropriate’ levels in an effort to reinvigorate credit following a downturn.

Monetary Policy in the Presence of Islamic Banking

Author: Mariam El Hamiani Khatat
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484302273
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This paper discusses key issues related to the conduct of monetary policy in countries that have Islamic banks. It describes the macrofinancial background and monetary policy frameworks where Islamic banks typically operate, and discusses the monetary transmission mechanism in economies where Islamic and conventional banking coexist. Most economies with Islamic banks also have conventional banks and this calls for a comprehensive approach to monetary policy. At the same time, a dual approach to monetary policy should be considered whenever the Islamic segment of the financial system is not as developed as the conventional one. The paper tries to shed light on potential spillovers between conventional and Islamic financial systems, and proposes specific recommendations on the design of Islamic monetary policy operations and for facilitating monetary transmission through the Islamic financial system.

International Capital Markets

Author: International Monetary Fund
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1455269808
Format: PDF, ePub
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Provides a comprehensive survey of recent developments in international financial markets, including developments in emerging capital markets, bond markets, major currency markets, and derivative markets. The report focuses on efforts by the major industrial countries to strengthen the management of financial risk and prundential oversight over the international banking system. It also critically evaluates existing mechanisms for international cooperation of financial supervision and regulation and proposes the development of international banking standards.

A Guide to the Formulation of Water Resources Strategy

Author: Guy J.-M. Le Moigne
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821330388
Format: PDF
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World Bank Technical Paper No. 263. Management of water resources is essential for long-term, environmentally sustainable human and economic development. Increasingly, the World Bank and other international organizations are called upon to provide

The Day After Tomorrow

Author: Otaviano Canuto
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821385461
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book is a vision of how economic policy will evolve in developing countries over the next three-to-five years, delivered by renown practitioners working at the world's leading development institution.