Morphological Aspects of Language Processing

Author: Laurie Beth Feldman
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134778333
Format: PDF
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It is now well established that phonological -- and orthographic -- codes play a crucial role in the recognition of isolated words and in understanding the sequences of words that comprise a sentence. However, words and sentences are organized with respect to morphological as well as phonological components. It is thus unfortunate that the morpheme has received relatively little attention in the experimental literature, either from psychologists or linguists. Due to recent methodological developments, however, now is an opportune time to address morphological issues. In the experimental literature, there is a tendency to examine various psycholinguistic processes in English and then to assume that the account given applies with equal significance to English and to other languages. Written languages differ, however, in the extent to which they capture phonological as contrasted with morphological units. Moreover, with respect to the morpheme, languages differ in the principle by which morphemes are connected to form new words. This volume focuses on morphological processes in word recognition and reading with an eye toward comparing morphological processes with orthographic and phonological processes. Cross-language comparisons are examined as a tool with which to probe universal linguistic processes, and a variety of research methodologies are described. Because it makes the experimental literature in languages other than English more accessible, this book is expected to be of interest to many readers. It also directs attention to the subject of language processing in general -- an issue which is of central interest to cognitive psychologists and linguists as well as educators and clinicians.

Morphological Structure in Language Processing

Author: R. Harald Baayen
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110910187
Format: PDF, ePub
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This volume brings together a series of studies of morphological processing in Germanic (English, German, Dutch), Romance (French, Italian), and Slavic (Polish, Serbian) languages. The question of how morphologically complex words are organized and processed in the mental lexicon is addressed from different theoretical perspectives (single and dual route models), for different modalities (auditory and visual comprehension, writing), and for language development. Experimental work is reported, as well as computational and statistical modeling. Thus, this volume provides a useful overview of the range of issues currently attracting reseach at the intersection of morphology and psycholinguistics.

Morphology and Computation

Author: Richard William Sproat
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262193146
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book provides the first broad yet thorough coverage of issues in morphological theory. It includes a wide array of techniques and systems in computational morphology (including discussion of their limitations), and describes some unusual applications.Sproat motivates the study of computational morphology by arguing that a computational natural language system, such as a parser or a generator, must incorporate a model of morphology. He discusses a range of applications for programs with knowledge of morphology, some of which are not generally found in the literature. Sproat then provides an overview of some of the basic descriptive facts about morphology and issues in theoretical morphology and (lexical) phonology, as well as psycholinguistic evidence for human processing of morphological structure. He takes up the basic techniques that have been proposed for doing morphological processing and discusses at length various systems (such as DECOMP and KIMMO) that incorporate part or all of those techniques, pointing out the inadequacies of such systems from both a descriptive and a computational point of view. He concludes by touching on interesting peripheral areas such as the analysis of complex nominals in English, and on the main contributions of Rumelhart and McClelland's connectionism to the computational analysis of words.

Language Processing and Acquisition in Languages of Semitic Root based Morphology

Author: Joseph Shimron
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027224965
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book puts together contributions of linguists and psycholinguists whose main interest here is the representation of Semitic words in the mental lexicon of Semitic language speakers. The central topic of the book confronts two views about the morphology of Semitic words. The point of the argument is: Should we see Semitic words' morphology as “root-based” or “word-based?” The proponents of the root-based approach, present empirical evidence demonstrating that Semitic language speakers are sensitive to the root and the template as the two basic elements (bound morphemes) of Semitic words. Those supporting the word-based approach, present arguments to the effect that Semitic word formation is not based on the merging of roots and templates, but that Semitic words are comprised of word stems and affixes like we find in Indo-European languages. The variety of evidence and arguments for each claim should force the interested readers to reconsider their views on Semitic morphology.

Reading Complex Words

Author: E. Assink
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306477072
Format: PDF
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In a series of fourteen chapters this book brings together current research findings on the involvement of word-internal structure for the purpose of word reading (especially morphological structure). Contributors include many leading experts in this research domain. The central theme of reading complex words is approached from several angles, such that the chapters span a wide variety of topics where this issue is important. The experiments reported in the book involve: - different populations : children, expert readers, illiterates; - different languages: Chinese, Dutch, English, French, Hebrew, Italian, Turkish, Serbian; - different processing levels where morphology may play a role: sublexical, supralexical; - different variables which may determine morphological effects: morphological type, semantic transparency, branching relations among morphemes. Given this scope, the book offers a good state of the art platform in current psycholinguistic research on the topic. Reading Complex Words: Cross-Language Studies is a valuable resource for all researchers studying the mental lexicon and to those who teach advanced courses in the psychology of language.

Natural Language Processing and Computational Linguistics

Author: Mohamed Zakaria Kurdi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1848218486
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Natural language processing (NLP) is a scientific discipline which is found at the interface of computer science, artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology. Providing an overview of international work in this interdisciplinary field, this book gives the reader a panoramic view of both early and current research in NLP. Carefully chosen multilingual examples present the state of the art of a mature field which is in a constant state of evolution. In four chapters, this book presents the fundamental concepts of phonetics and phonology and the two most important applications in the field of speech processing: recognition and synthesis. Also presented are the fundamental concepts of corpus linguistics and the basic concepts of morphology and its NLP applications such as stemming and part of speech tagging. The fundamental notions and the most important syntactic theories are presented, as well as the different approaches to syntactic parsing with reference to cognitive models, algorithms and computer applications.

Arabic Natural Language Processing

Author: Nizar Y. Habash
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1598297953
Format: PDF
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This book provides system developers and researchers in natural language processing and computational linguistics with the necessary background information for working with the Arabic language. The goal is to introduce Arabic linguistic phenomena and review the state-of-the-art in Arabic processing. The book discusses Arabic script, phonology, orthography, morphology, syntax and semantics, with a final chapter on machine translation issues. The chapter sizes correspond more or less to what is linguistically distinctive about Arabic, with morphology getting the lion's share, followed by Arabic script. No previous knowledge of Arabic is needed. This book is designed for computer scientists and linguists alike. The focus of the book is on Modern Standard Arabic; however, notes on practical issues related to Arabic dialects and languages written in the Arabic script are presented in different chapters. Table of Contents: What is "Arabic"? / Arabic Script / Arabic Phonology and Orthography / Arabic Morphology / Computational Morphology Tasks / Arabic Syntax / A Note on Arabic Semantics / A Note on Arabic and Machine Translation

The Oxford Handbook of Derivational Morphology

Author: Rochelle Lieber
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191651788
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Oxford Handbook of Derivational Morphology is intended as a companion volume to The Oxford Handbook of Compounding (OUP 2009) Written by distinguished scholars, its 41 chapters aim to provide a comprehensive and thorough overview of the study of derivational morphology. The handbook begins with an overview and a consideration of definitional matters, distinguishing derivation from inflection on the one hand and compounding on the other. From a formal perspective, the handbook treats affixation (prefixation, suffixation, infixation, circumfixation, etc.), conversion, reduplication, root and pattern and other templatic processes, as well as prosodic and subtractive means of forming new words. From a semantic perspective, it looks at the processes that form various types of adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs, as well as evaluatives and the rarer processes that form function words. The book also surveys derivation in fifteen language families that are widely dispersed in terms of both geographical location and typological characteristics.

Perspectives on Classifier Constructions in Sign Languages

Author: Karen Emmorey
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135632960
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Classifier constructions are universal to sign languages and exhibit unique properties that arise from the nature of the visual-gestural modality. The major goals are to bring to light critical issues related to the study of classifier constructions and to present state-of-the-art linguistic and psycholinguistic analyses of these constructions. It is hoped that by doing so, more researchers will be inspired to investigate the nature of classifier constructions across signed languages and further explore the unique aspects of these forms. The papers in this volume discuss the following issues: *how sign language classifiers differ from spoken languages; *cross-linguistic variation in sign language classifier systems; *the role of gesture; *the nature of morpho-syntactic and phonological constraints on classifier constructions; *the grammaticization process for these forms; and *the acquisition of classifier forms. Divided into four parts, groups of papers focus on a particular set of issues, and commentary papers end each section.