Morphological Aspects of Language Processing

Author: Laurie Beth Feldman
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134778333
Format: PDF, ePub
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It is now well established that phonological -- and orthographic -- codes play a crucial role in the recognition of isolated words and in understanding the sequences of words that comprise a sentence. However, words and sentences are organized with respect to morphological as well as phonological components. It is thus unfortunate that the morpheme has received relatively little attention in the experimental literature, either from psychologists or linguists. Due to recent methodological developments, however, now is an opportune time to address morphological issues. In the experimental literature, there is a tendency to examine various psycholinguistic processes in English and then to assume that the account given applies with equal significance to English and to other languages. Written languages differ, however, in the extent to which they capture phonological as contrasted with morphological units. Moreover, with respect to the morpheme, languages differ in the principle by which morphemes are connected to form new words. This volume focuses on morphological processes in word recognition and reading with an eye toward comparing morphological processes with orthographic and phonological processes. Cross-language comparisons are examined as a tool with which to probe universal linguistic processes, and a variety of research methodologies are described. Because it makes the experimental literature in languages other than English more accessible, this book is expected to be of interest to many readers. It also directs attention to the subject of language processing in general -- an issue which is of central interest to cognitive psychologists and linguists as well as educators and clinicians.

Morphological Structure in Language Processing

Author: R. Harald Baayen
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110910187
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume brings together a series of studies of morphological processing in Germanic (English, German, Dutch), Romance (French, Italian), and Slavic (Polish, Serbian) languages. The question of how morphologically complex words are organized and processed in the mental lexicon is addressed from different theoretical perspectives (single and dual route models), for different modalities (auditory and visual comprehension, writing), and for language development. Experimental work is reported, as well as computational and statistical modeling. Thus, this volume provides a useful overview of the range of issues currently attracting reseach at the intersection of morphology and psycholinguistics.

Linguistic Fundamentals for Natural Language Processing

Author: Emily M. Bender
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627050124
Format: PDF, Docs
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Many NLP tasks have at their core a subtask of extracting the dependencies—who did what to whom—from natural language sentences. This task can be understood as the inverse of the problem solved in different ways by diverse human languages, namely, how to indicate the relationship between different parts of a sentence. Understanding how languages solve the problem can be extremely useful in both feature design and error analysis in the application of machine learning to NLP. Likewise, understanding cross-linguistic variation can be important for the design of MT systems and other multilingual applications. The purpose of this book is to present in a succinct and accessible fashion information about the morphological and syntactic structure of human languages that can be useful in creating more linguistically sophisticated, more language-independent, and thus more successful NLP systems. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments / Introduction/motivation / Morphology: Introduction / Morphophonology / Morphosyntax / Syntax: Introduction / Parts of speech / Heads, arguments, and adjuncts / Argument types and grammatical functions / Mismatches between syntactic position and semantic roles / Resources / Bibliography / Author's Biography / General Index / Index of Languages

Morphology and Computation

Author: Richard William Sproat
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262193146
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book provides the first broad yet thorough coverage of issues in morphological theory. It includes a wide array of techniques and systems in computational morphology (including discussion of their limitations), and describes some unusual applications.Sproat motivates the study of computational morphology by arguing that a computational natural language system, such as a parser or a generator, must incorporate a model of morphology. He discusses a range of applications for programs with knowledge of morphology, some of which are not generally found in the literature. Sproat then provides an overview of some of the basic descriptive facts about morphology and issues in theoretical morphology and (lexical) phonology, as well as psycholinguistic evidence for human processing of morphological structure. He takes up the basic techniques that have been proposed for doing morphological processing and discusses at length various systems (such as DECOMP and KIMMO) that incorporate part or all of those techniques, pointing out the inadequacies of such systems from both a descriptive and a computational point of view. He concludes by touching on interesting peripheral areas such as the analysis of complex nominals in English, and on the main contributions of Rumelhart and McClelland's connectionism to the computational analysis of words.

Language Processing and Acquisition in Languages of Semitic Root Based Morphology

Author: Joseph Shimron
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027296685
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book puts together contributions of linguists and psycholinguists whose main interest here is the representation of Semitic words in the mental lexicon of Semitic language speakers. The central topic of the book confronts two views about the morphology of Semitic words. The point of the argument is: Should we see Semitic words’ morphology as “root-based” or “word-based?” The proponents of the root-based approach, present empirical evidence demonstrating that Semitic language speakers are sensitive to the root and the template as the two basic elements (bound morphemes) of Semitic words. Those supporting the word-based approach, present arguments to the effect that Semitic word formation is not based on the merging of roots and templates, but that Semitic words are comprised of word stems and affixes like we find in Indo-European languages. The variety of evidence and arguments for each claim should force the interested readers to reconsider their views on Semitic morphology.

Natural Language Processing and Computational Linguistics

Author: Mohamed Zakaria Kurdi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1848218486
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Natural language processing (NLP) is a scientific discipline which is found at the interface of computer science, artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology. Providing an overview of international work in this interdisciplinary field, this book gives the reader a panoramic view of both early and current research in NLP. Carefully chosen multilingual examples present the state of the art of a mature field which is in a constant state of evolution. In four chapters, this book presents the fundamental concepts of phonetics and phonology and the two most important applications in the field of speech processing: recognition and synthesis. Also presented are the fundamental concepts of corpus linguistics and the basic concepts of morphology and its NLP applications such as stemming and part of speech tagging. The fundamental notions and the most important syntactic theories are presented, as well as the different approaches to syntactic parsing with reference to cognitive models, algorithms and computer applications.

Language Processing and Acquisition in Languages of Semitic Root based Morphology

Author: Joseph Shimron
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027224965
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book puts together contributions of linguists and psycholinguists whose main interest here is the representation of Semitic words in the mental lexicon of Semitic language speakers. The central topic of the book confronts two views about the morphology of Semitic words. The point of the argument is: Should we see Semitic words' morphology as “root-based” or “word-based?” The proponents of the root-based approach, present empirical evidence demonstrating that Semitic language speakers are sensitive to the root and the template as the two basic elements (bound morphemes) of Semitic words. Those supporting the word-based approach, present arguments to the effect that Semitic word formation is not based on the merging of roots and templates, but that Semitic words are comprised of word stems and affixes like we find in Indo-European languages. The variety of evidence and arguments for each claim should force the interested readers to reconsider their views on Semitic morphology.

Neuroanatomy of Language Regions of the Human Brain

Author: Michael Petrides
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124059317
Format: PDF
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Many studies of the neural bases of language processes are now conducted with functional and structural neuroimaging. Research is often compromised because of difficulties in identifying the core structures in the face of the complex morphology of these regions of the brain. Although there are many books on the cognitive aspects of language and also on neurolinguistics and aphasiology, Neuroanatomy of Language Regions of the Human Brain is the first anatomical atlas that focuses on the core regions of the cerebral cortex involved in language processing. This atlas is a richly illustrated guide for scientists interested in the gross morphology of the sulci and gyri of the core language regions, in the cytoarchitecture of the relevant cortical areas, and in the connectivity of these areas. Data from diffusion MRI and resting-state connectivity are integrated iwth critical experimental anatomical data about homologous areas in the macaque monkey to provide the latest information on the connectivity of the language-relevant cortical areas of the brain. Although the anatomical connectivity data from studies on the macaque monkey provide the most detailed information, they are often neglected because of difficulties in interpreting the terminology used and in making the monkey-to-human comparison. This atlas helps investigators interpret this important source of information. Neuroanatomy of Language Regions of the Human Brain will assist investigators of the neural bases of language in increasing the anatomical sophistication of their research adn in evaluating studies of language and the brain. Abundantly illustrated with photographs, 3-D MRI reconstructions, and sections to represent the morphology of the sulci and gyri in the frontal, temporal, and parietal regions involved in language processing Photomicrographs showing the cytoarchitecture of cortical areas involved in language processing Series of coronal, sagittal, and horizontal sections identifying the sulci and gyri to assist language investigators using structural and functional neuroimaging techniques All images accompanied by brief commentaries to help users navigate the complexities of the anatomy Integration of data from diffusion MRI and resting-state connectivity with critical experimental anatomical data on the connectivity of homologous areas in the macaque monkey

Lexical Strata in English

Author: Heinz J. Giegerich
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139425223
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In Lexical Strata in English, Heinz Giegerich investigates the way in which alternations in the sound patterns of words interact with the morphological processes of the language. Drawing examples from English and German, he uncovers and spells out in detail the principles of 'lexical morphology and phonology', a theory that has in recent years become increasingly influential in linguistics. Giegerich queries many of the assumptions made in that theory, overturning some and putting others on a principled footing. What emerges is a formally coherent and highly constrained theory of the lexicon - the theory of 'base-driven' stratification - which predicts the number of lexical strata from the number of base-category distinctions recognized in the morphology of the language. Finally, he offers accounts of some central phenomena in the phonology of English (including vowel 'reduction', [r]-sandhi and syllabification), which both support and are uniquely facilitated by this new theory.

Second Language Processing

Author: Nan Jiang
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134608322
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Second Language Processing: An Introduction is the first textbook to offer a thorough introduction to the field of second language processing (SLP). The study of SLP seeks to illuminate the cognitive processes underlying the processing of a non-native language. While current literature tends to focus on one topic or area of research, this textbook aims to bring these different research strands together in a single volume, elucidating their particularities while also demonstrating the relationships between them. The book begins by outlining what is entailed in the study of SLP, how it relates to other fields of study, and some of the main issues shared across its subareas. It then moves into an exploration of the three major areas of current research in the field—phonological processing, lexical processing, and sentence processing. Each chapter provides a broad overview of the topic and covers the major research methods, models, and studies germane to that area of study. Ideal for students and researchers working in this growing field, Second Language Processing will serve as the go-to guide for a complete examination of the major topics of study in SLP.