Verbal Behavior

Author: B. F. Skinner
Publisher: B. F. Skinner Foundation
ISBN: 0989983900
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In 1934, at the age of 30, B. F. Skinner found himself at a dinner sitting next to Professor Alfred North Whitehead. Never one to lose an opportunity to promote behaviorism, Skinner expounded its main tenets to the distinguished philosopher. Whitehead acknowledged that science might account for most of human behavior but he would not include verbal behavior. He ended the discussion with a challenge: "Let me see you," he said, "account for my behavior as I sit here saying, 'No black scorpion is falling upon this table.'" The next morning Skinner began this book. It took him over twenty years to complete. This book extends the laboratory-based principles of selection by consequences to account for what people say, write, gesture, and think. Skinner argues that verbal behavior requires a separate analysis because it does not operate on the environment directly, but rather through the behavior of other people in a verbal community. He illustrates his thesis with examples from literature, the arts, and sciences, as well as from his own verbal behavior and that of his colleagues and children. Perhaps it is because this theoretical work provides a way to approach that most human of human behavior that Skinner ofter called Verbal Behavior his most important work.

The Threads of Reading

Author: Karen Tankersley
Publisher: ASCD
ISBN: 1416612602
Format: PDF, ePub
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How can teachers make sure that all students gain the reading skills they need to be successful in school and in life? In this book, Karen Tankersley describes the six foundational "threads" that students need to study in order to become effective readers: phonemic awareness, phonics and decoding, vocabulary, fluency, comprehension, and higher-order processing. For each area, the author explains how students acquire the reading skills they need and offers a series of skill-building strategies and activities that teachers can use in the classroom. Although reading is perhaps most intensely taught in the kindergarten and 1st-grade classrooms, Tankersley emphasizes that helping students become lifelong readers is a task for all teachers, including content-area teachers in middle and high schools. The Threads of Reading addresses key questions about literacy, such as * What makes a difference in reading achievement? * How much reading time is enough? * How can teachers use writing to build reading skills? * How can teachers help students make meaning from their reading? The strategies in this book address many situations, from individual instruction to small- or large-group instruction, from kindergarten to high school. Teachers will appreciate the multitude of activities provided, and administrators will learn to better evaluate the reading programs in place in their districts and schools. Grounded in both research and "teacher lore" from actual classrooms, this book is a solid guide to helping students become lifelong readers.

Eliciting Sounds Techniques and Strategies for Clinicians

Author: Wayne Secord
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1401897258
Format: PDF, ePub
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The second edition of Eliciting Sounds: Techniques and Strategies for Clinicians is a quick, easy-to-use compendium of techniques for immediately evoking any phoneme targeted for remediation. This new edition of our classic resource continues to provide the most clinically relevant information in a compact, accessible format. No clinical speech-language pathologist should ever be without Eliciting Sounds. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Dynamics of Speech Production and Perception

Author: P.L. Divenyi
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1607502038
Format: PDF, Docs
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The idea that speech is a dynamic process is a tautology: whether from the standpoint of the talker, the listener, or the engineer, speech is an action, a sound, or a signal continuously changing in time. Yet, because phonetics and speech science are offspring of classical phonology, speech has been viewed as a sequence of discrete events-positions of the articulatory apparatus, waveform segments, and phonemes. Although this perspective has been mockingly referred to as "beads on a string", from the time of Henry Sweet's 19th century treatise almost up to our days specialists of speech science and speech technology have continued to conceptualize the speech signal as a sequence of static states interleaved with transitional elements reflecting the quasi-continuous nature of vocal production. This book, a collection of papers of which each looks at speech as a dynamic process and highlights one of its particularities, is dedicated to the memory of Ludmilla Andreevna Chistovich. At the outset, it was planned to be a Chistovich festschrift but, sadly, she passed away a few months before the book went to press. The 24 chapters of this volume testify to the enormous influence that she and her colleagues have had over the four decades since the publication of their 1965 monograph.

The Sounds of Language

Author: Elizabeth C. Zsiga
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118340604
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Sounds of Language is an introductory guide to the linguistic study of speech sounds, which provides uniquely balanced coverage of both phonology and phonetics. Features exercises and problem sets, as well as supporting online resources at www.wiley.com/go/zsiga, including additional discussion questions and exercises, as well as links to further resources such as sound files, video files, and useful websites Creates opportunities for students to practice data analysis and hypothesis testing Integrates data on sociolinguistic variation, first language acquisition, and second language learning Explores diverse topics ranging from the practical, such as how to make good digital recordings, make a palatogram, solve a phoneme/allophone problem, or read a spectrogram; to the theoretical, including the role of markedness in linguistic theory, the necessity of abstraction, features and formal notation, issues in speech perception as distinct from hearing, and modelling sociolinguistic and other variations Organized specifically to fit the needs of undergraduate students of phonetics and phonology, and is structured in a way which enables instructors to use the text both for a single semester phonetics and phonology course or for a two-course sequence

The Sound Pattern of English

Author: Noam Chomsky
Publisher: Mit Press
ISBN: 9780262530972
Format: PDF
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Since this classic work in phonology was published in 1968, there has been no other book that gives as broad a view of the subject, combining generally applicable theoretical contributions with analysis of the details of a single language. The theoretical issues raised in The Sound Pattern of English continue to be critical to current phonology, and in many instances the solutions proposed by Chomsky and Halle have yet to be improved upon.Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle are Institute Professors of Linguistics and Philosophy at MIT.

Phonetic Science for Clinical Practice

Author: Kathy J. Jakielski
Publisher: Plural Publishing
ISBN: 1635500486
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Phonetic Science for Clinical Practice is designed to serve as an introductory, one-term textbook for undergraduate phonetics courses in communication sciences and disorders. The text begins by introducing the fundamental tool of transcription - the International Phonetic Alphabet - while also presenting the science underlying that set of symbols. The goal of this text is to teach students how to think about the data being transcribed - in other words, how to think like a phonetician. Every chapter begins with Learning Objectives and an Applied Science problem and question - a research- or clinical-based question that can be answered by applying the phonetic science concepts covered in that chapter. By the end of the chapter, students will revisit the question and be asked to solve the problem posed. Students studying communication sciences and disorders and practicing speech-language pathologists or audiologists will be more successful in their clinical work if they understand the science that underlies the tool of transcription. In each chapter there are also several diverse clinical examples to review the application of concepts covered. Phonetic Science for Clinical Practice covers exactly what students (and clinical speech-language pathologists and audiologists) need to know to be effective speech-language pathologists and audiologists in any setting where an understanding of speech sounds is needed. Key Features: Focused on practical, clinical application, and the information needed for clinical practiceDid You Get It? comprehension checks on the material throughout each chapterFlashcards for phonetic transcription practiceSound files for IPA symbols and particular words*Disclaimer: Please note that ancillary content (such as documents, audio, and video, etc.) may not be included as published in the original print version of this book.