Multimedia Environmental Models

Author: Donald Mackay
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420032542
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Completely revised and updated, Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach, Second Edition continues to provide simple techniques for calculating how chemicals behave in the environment, where they accumulate, how long they persist, and how this leads to human exposure. The book develops, describes, and illustrates the framework and procedures for calculating the behavior of chemicals in our multimedia environment of air, water, soil, and sediments, as well as the diversity of biota that reside in these media. While other books focus on specific compartments, such as the atmosphere, or specific substances, such as PCBs, this book presents the big picture of how organic chemicals behave in the total environment. It does this by providing examples of calculation methods based on the fugacity approach and explaining how to access up-to-date property databases and estimation methods as well as computer programs, which are available from the Internet. In addition, the models are Web based, instead of on a floppy disk as in the previous edition. Building on the work developed in the First Edition, the Second Edition includes: A how-to modeling section, more worked examples and problems- most with solutions and answers Expanded treatment of structure-activity relationships and modern estimation methods More material illustrating applications to bioaccumulation is specific organisms and food webs Emphasis on current efforts to identify PBT chemicals and exposure analysis as a component of risk assessment Examples that provide each step of modeling calculations Web-based models, and references to property databases, estimation methods, and computer programs from the Internet When you need to make assessments of chemical behavior you need current, comprehensive. Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach provides you with not only an understanding of how the multitude of organic chemicals behave in the total environment, but also with practical examples of how this behavior can be predicted using the fugacity approach.

Pollutants in a Multimedia Environment

Author: Yoram Cohen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146132243X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Pollutants released to the environment are distributed among the many environmental media such as air, water, soil, and vegetation, as the result of complex physical, chemical and biological processes. The possible environmental impact associated with chemical pollutants is related to their concentration levels and persistence in the various environmental compartments. Therefore, information regarding the migration of pollutants across environmental phase boundaries (eg., air-water, soil-water) and their accumulation in the environment is essential if we are to assess the potential environmental impact and the associated risks. In recent years it has become apparent that environmental pollution is a multimedia problem. Risk assessment and the design of appropriate pollution control measures require that we carefully consider the transport and accumulation of pollutants in the environment. We are now recognizing that the environment must be considered as a whole, and the scientific and regulatory approaches must consider the interactions of environmental media. It is also becoming apparent that single-medium approaches are partial and often counter-productive. On the other hand any multimedia program must carefully consider the rate of each environmental medium in the overall multimedia scheme.

Environmental Modeling and Health Risk Analysis Acts Risk

Author: Mustafa Aral ARAL
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048186082
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Environmental Modeling and Health Risk Analysis (ACTS/RISK) The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with an integrated perspective on several ?elds. First, it discusses the ?elds of environmental modeling in general and multimedia (the term “multimedia” is used throughout the text to indicate that environmental transformation and transport processes are discussed in association with three environmental media: air, groundwater and surface water pathways) environmental transformation and transport processes in particular; it also provides a detailed description of numerous mechanistic models that are used in these ?elds. Second, this book presents a review of the topics of exposure and health risk analysis. The Analytical Contaminant Transport Analysis System (ACTS) and Health RISK Analysis (RISK) software tools are an integral part of the book and provide computational platforms for all the models discussed herein. The most recent versions of these two software tools can be downloaded from the publisher’s web site. The author recommends registering the software on the web download page so that users can receive updates about newer versions of the software.

Models in Environmental Regulatory Decision Making

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309110009
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Many regulations issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are based on the results of computer models. Models help EPA explain environmental phenomena in settings where direct observations are limited or unavailable, and anticipate the effects of agency policies on the environment, human health and the economy. Given the critical role played by models, the EPA asked the National Research Council to assess scientific issues related to the agency's selection and use of models in its decisions. The book recommends a series of guidelines and principles for improving agency models and decision-making processes. The centerpiece of the book's recommended vision is a life-cycle approach to model evaluation which includes peer review, corroboration of results, and other activities. This will enhance the agency's ability to respond to requirements from a 2001 law on information quality and improve policy development and implementation.

Risk Assessment of Chemicals An Introduction

Author: C.J. van Leeuwen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402061013
Format: PDF
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At last – a second edition of this hugely important text that reflects the progress and experience gained in the last decade and aims at providing background and training material for a new generation of risk assessors. The authors offer an introduction to risk assessment of chemicals as well as basic background information on sources, emissions, distribution and fate processes for the estimation of exposure of plant and animal species in the environment and humans exposed via the environment, consumer products, and at the workplace. The coverage describes the basic principles and methods of risk assessment within their legislative frameworks (EU, USA, Japan and Canada).

Ecotoxicology Modeling

Author: James Devillers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441901972
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Ecotoxicology Modeling is a comprehensive and well-documented text providing a collection of computational methods to the ecotoxicologists primarily interested in the study of the adverse effects of chemicals, their mechanisms of action and/or their environmental fate and behavior. Avoiding mathematical jargon, the book presents numerous case studies to enable the reader to understand the interest but also the limitations of linear and nonlinear models in ecotoxicology. Written by an international team of scientists, Ecotoxicology Modeling is of primary interest to those whose research or professional activity is directly concerned with the development and application of models in ecotoxicology. It is also intended to provide the graduate and post-graduate students with a clear and accessible text covering the main types of modeling approaches used in environmental sciences.

Modelling of Environmental Chemical Exposure and Risk

Author: Jan B.H.J. Linders
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401008841
Format: PDF
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Mathematical models are being increasingly used to estimate the concentrations of a wide range of substances in the environment for a variety of reasons, including government control and legislation, and risk and hazard estimation. Exposure assessment has to be performed for many types of substances, including pesticides, industrial chemicals, pollutants, accidental discharges, etc. The interpretation of the results of model equations should always bear in mind the purpose for which the model used was built in the first place. Further, models are always an abstraction of reality, requiring simplifying assumptions to keep the models within the restraints posed by computer performance and/or scientific knowledge. The present book treats the theme of modelling chemical exposure and risk in terms of four main topics: model characteristics, applications, comparison of estimated with measured concentrations, and modelling credibility.

Next Generation Environmental Models and Computational Methods

Author: George Delic
Publisher: SIAM
ISBN: 9780898713787
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Large-scale changes are taking place in the way modelling is performed within the US EPA, and a new generation of environmental models is currently under construction. The US EPA is engaging in several modelling efforts in response to Congressional mandates such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act. These mandates require the scientific modelling of the impact of pollutants on human health and the environment. The complexity of scale in environmental models has increased by several orders of magnitude, with a simultaneous demand for increased stability, accuracy and efficiency in the computed model solution. This book showcases numerical algorithms appropriate to the subject areas listed below and explores how new algorithmic methods would benefit the US EPA's environmental models and other environmental studies.

OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals OECD Series on Testing and Assessment Report of the OECD UNEP Workshop on the Use of Multimedia Models for Estimating Overall Environmental Persistence and Long Range Transport in the Context of PBTS POPS Assessment

Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 9264078509
Format: PDF, Docs
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This document contains the report from the OECD/UNEP Workshop on the Use of Multimedia Models for Estimating Overall Persistence and Long-range Transport in the Context of PBTs/POPs Assessment, held on 29-31 October 2001 in Ottawa, Canada, together ...

Integrated Environmental Modeling

Author: Anu Ramaswami
Publisher: Wiley
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A unified presentation of environmental model development, implementation, and testing Integrated Environmental Modeling teaches model development, model implementation, and model testing skills in a unified manner, crosscutting the three "media" comprising environmental systems—air, water, and soil—by focusing on parallels and similarities between them, and introducing a new generation of multimedia models. No other single volume offers comprehensive coverage of chemical transport and fate in all three environmental media, including the resulting impacts on the biosphere and human health, with a focus on the fundamental processes underlying environmental modeling. Integrated Environmental Modeling provides broad-based training in the development of pollutant transport and fate models in air, water, and soil, with a focus on five essential competencies: Understanding the fundamental process principles that govern contaminant transport and transformations in multimedia environments, emphasizing the parallels and links between different media Learning model development skills, starting from the simplest conceptual models and building more complex and realistic models that couple component process modules at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales of resolution Using statistical methods and data sources to estimate input parameters and characterize model sensitivity and uncertainty Gaining hands-on experience with computer-aided implementation and evaluation of fate and transport models using realistic case study examples Applying fate and transport models to evaluate pollutant interactions with the biosphere, particularly in human exposure modeling and health risk assessment Complete with case studies, Integrated Environmental Modeling is a valuable, single-source tool for senior and graduate students in environmental science and engineering courses on pollutant transport, remediation, and risk assessment, and an essential reference text for professionals in industry, consulting, and government agencies responsible for environmental assessment and risk analysis.