Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes

Author: Gary C. Young
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118029275
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A technical and economic review of emerging waste disposal technologies Intended for a wide audience ranging from engineers and academics to decision-makers in both the public and private sectors, Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes: Economic, Technical, and Renewable Comparisons reviews the current state of the solid waste disposal industry. It details how the proven plasma gasification technology can be used to manage Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and to generate energy and revenues for local communities in an environmentally safe manner with essentially no wastes. Beginning with an introduction to pyrolysis/gasification and combustion technologies, the book provides many case studies on various waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies and creates an economic and technical baseline from which all current and emerging WTE technologies could be compared and evaluated. Topics include: Pyrolysis/gasification technology, the most suitable and economically viable approach for the management of wastes Combustion technology Other renewable energy resources including wind and hydroelectric energy Plasma economics Cash flows as a revenue source for waste solids-to-energy management Plant operations, with an independent case study of Eco-Valley plant in Utashinai, Japan Extensive case studies of garbage to liquid fuels, wastes to electricity, and wastes to power ethanol plants illustrate how currently generated MSW and past wastes in landfills can be processed with proven plasma gasification technology to eliminate air and water pollution from landfills.

Resource Recovery to Approach Zero Municipal Waste

Author: Mohammad J. Taherzadeh
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 148224036X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Current development results in a linear flow from raw material to waste, which cannot be sustainable in the long term. Plus, a global population of 7 billion people means that there are 7 billion waste producers in the world. At present, dumping and landfilling are the primary practices for getting rid of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, this waste contains resources that we’ve yet to utilize. To create sustainable societies, we need to approach zero waste by recovering these resources. There are cities and countries where zero waste is close to becoming a reality. Landfilling of organic waste is forbidden in Europe, and countries such as Sweden, Germany, Belgium, and Switzerland have developed a variety of technologies to recover resources from MSW. Resource Recovery to Approach Zero Municipal Waste explores the solid waste management laws and regulations of different countries, comparing the latest resource recovery technologies and offering future perspectives. The book tackles the many technical, social, ecological, economical, and managerial aspects of this complex subject while promoting the development of sustainable societies to achieve a greener global environment.

Alternative Energy Systems and Applications

Author: B. K. Hodge
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111910923X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The comprehensive guide to engineering alternative and renewable energy systems and applications—updated for the latest trends and technologies This book was designed tohelp engineers develop new solutions for the current energy economy. To that end it provides technical discussions, along with numerous real-world examples of virtually all existing alternative energy sources, applications, systems and system components. All chapters focus on first-order engineering calculations, and consider alternative uses of existing and renewable energy resources. Just as important, the author describes how to apply these concepts to the development of new energy solutions. Since the publication of the critically acclaimed first edition of this book, the alternative, renewable and sustainable energy industries have witnessed significant evolution and growth. Hydraulic fracturing, fossil fuel reserve increases, the increasing popularity of hybrid and all-electric vehicles, and the decreasing cost of solar power already have had a significant impact on energy usage patterns worldwide. Updated and revised to reflect those and other key developments, this new edition features expanded coverage of topics covered in the first edition, as well as entirely new chapters on hydraulic fracturing and fossil fuels, hybrid and all-electric vehicles, and more. Begins with a fascinating look at the changing face of global energy economy Features chapters devoted to virtually all sources of alternative energy and energy systems Offers technical discussions of hydropower, wind, passive solar and solar-thermal, photovoltaics, fuel cells, CHP systems, geothermal, ocean energy, biomass, and nuclear Contains updated chapter review questions, homework problems, and a thoroughly revised solutions manual, available on the companion website While Alternative Energy Systems and Applications, Second Edition is an ideal textbook/reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate level engineering courses in energy-related subjects, it is also an indispensable professional resource for engineers and technicians working in areas related to the development of alternative/renewable energy systems.

Waste Biorefinery

Author: Thallada Bhaskar
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444639934
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Waste Biorefinery: Potential and Perspectives offers data-based information on the most cutting-edge processes for the utilisation of biogenic waste to produce biofuels, energy products, and biochemicals – a critical aspect of biorefinery. The book explores recent developments in biochemical and thermo-chemical methods of conversion and the potential generated by different kinds of biomass in more decentralized biorefineries. Additionally, the book discusses the move from 200 years of raw fossil materials to renewable resources and how this shift is accompanied by fundamental changes in industrial manufacturing technologies (from chemistry to biochemistry) and in logistics and manufacturing concepts (from petrochemical refineries to biorefineries). Waste Biorefinery: Potential and Perspectives designs concepts that enable modern biorefineries to utilize all types of biogenic wastes, and to integrate processes that convert byproduct streams to high-value products, achieving higher cost benefits. This book is an essential resource for researchers and students studying biomass, biorefineries, and biofuels/products/processes, as well as chemists, biochemical/chemical engineers, microbiologists, and biotechnologists working in industries and government agencies. Details the most advanced and innovative methods for biomass conversion Covers biochemical and thermo-chemical processes as well as product development Discusses the integration of technologies to produce bio-fuels, energy products, and biochemicals Illustrates specific applications in numerous case studies for reference and teaching purposes

Incineration Technologies

Author: Alfons Buekens
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461457521
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the combustion residues. Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat. Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution to the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. It provides detailed treatment of the challenges of this technically complex process, which requires huge investment and operating costs, as well as good technical skills in maintenance and plant operation. Particular attention is paid to technologies for ensuring the complete burn-out of flue gas and residues and for controlling the resulting pollutants.

Gasification of Waste Materials

Author: Simona Ciuta
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128127171
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Gasification of Waste Materials: Technologies for Generating Energy, Gas and Chemicals from MSW, Biomass, Non-recycled Plastics, Sludges and Wet Solid Wastes explores the most recent gasification technologies developing worldwide to convert waste solids to energy and synthesis gas and chemical products. The authors examine the thermodynamic aspects, accepted reaction mechanisms and kinetic constraints of using municipal solid waste (MSW), biomass, non-recycled plastics (NRP), sludges and wet solid wastes as feedstock. They identify the distinctions between pyrolysis, gasification, plasma, hydrothermal gasification, and supercritical systems. A comprehensive summary of laboratory and demonstration activities is presented, as well as field scale systems that have been in operation using solid waste streams as input, highlighting their areas of disconnect and alignment. The book also provides a summary of information on emissions from the stack, comparing them with other thermal conversion systems using similar feedstock. It then goes on to assess the areas that must be improved to ensure gasification systems become as successful as combustion systems operating on waste streams, ranging from feedstock processing to gasifier output gas clean-up, downstream system requirements and corrosion. The economics and future projections for waste gasification systems are also discussed. For its consolidation of the current technical knowledge, this text is recommended for engineering researchers, graduate students, industry professionals, municipal engineers and decision makers when planning, designing and deploying waste to energy projects, especially those using MSW as feedstock. Provides field demonstrations of large scale systems, their results and the challenges that need to be overcome when developing commercial applications and possible solutions Presents the most recent technologies in lab and demonstration scale Examines the critical development needs and real life challenges for the deployment of waste to energy technologies Provides information on the economics and sustainability of these technologies, as well as their future perspectives

Energie aus Biomasse

Author: Martin Kaltschmitt
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662474387
Format: PDF, ePub
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Dieses Standardwerk beschreibt umfassend die biologischen, physikalischen, chemischen und technischen Grundlagen einer Energiegewinnung aus Biomasse. Dies beinhaltet eine Beschreibung der verfügbaren Biomasseressourcen, eine Systematisierung möglicher Bereitstellungsketten und -techniken zur Verfügbarmachung der Biomassen an der jeweiligen Konversionsanlage und eine Darstellung der thermo-chemischen, der physikalisch-chemischen sowie derbiochemischen Umwandlungsmöglichkeiten in Bioenergieträger (z. B. Holzkohle, Biodiesel, Biogas) bzw. Bioenergie (d. h. Wärme, Strom). · Die thermo-chemische Biomasseumwandlung umfasst die Verbrennung biogener Festbrennstoffe in Klein- und Großanlagen zur Strom- und Wärmeerzeugung und – jeweils in der Gasatmosphäre – die Biomassevergasung u. a. zur Kraftstoffsynthese (z. B. Fischer-Tropsch-Diesel) sowie die schnelle und langsame Pyrolyse (d. h. Bioöl- und Holzkohleerzeugung). Zusätzlich wird auf die thermo-chemische Umwandlung in hydrothermaler Atmosphäre (z. B. hydrothermale Karbonisierung) eingegangen. · Die physikalisch-chemische Umwandlung beinhaltet die Pflanzenölerzeugung und die entsprechenden Umwandlungsmöglichkeiten in einen normenkonformen Biokraftstoff. · Unter einer biochemischen Umwandlung wird eine Alkoholherstellung als Kraftstoffkomponente und eine Biogaserzeugung als Brenn- und Kraftstoff verstanden. Im Vergleich zur 2. Auflage wurde die 3. Auflage vollständig überarbeitet, z. T. neu strukturiert, stark erweitert und an den aktuellen Stand des Wissens und der Technik angepasst. Hinzu gekommen sind u. a. die Bereitstellung von Algenbiomasse, hydrothermale Biomasseumwandlungsverfahren, innovative Optionen zur Pflanzenölhydrierung, die Butanolerzeugung und die Synthesegasfermentation sowie Verfahren zur Erzeugung von flüssigen und gasförmigen Biokraftstoffen aus Biogas. Das Buch bietet einen umfassenden Überblick der naturwissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und des aktuellen Standes der Technik. Den Herausgebern ist es gelungen, unter Mitarbeit einer Vielzahl kompetenter Fachleute ein umfassendes Werk mit allen wesentlichen Möglichkeiten einer Energiegewinnung aus Biomasse "aus einem Guss" zu erarbeiten. Die Zielgruppen Das Buch wendet sich an Studierende, Anlagenbetreiber, Berater, Wissenschaftler sowie interessierte Laien.

Nachwachsende Energietr ger

Author: Martin Kaltschmitt
Publisher: Vieweg+Teubner Verlag
ISBN: 9783528067786
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Diese Monographie faßt die Ergebnisse der umfangreichen Forschungsstudie "Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung von nachwachsenden Energieträgern unter verschiedenen ökologischen Aspekten" zusammen, die die Herausgeber und ihre Autoren im Auftrag der Bundesstiftung Umwelt durchgeführt haben. Dabei wurden alle derzeit für Deutschland ernsthaft diskutierten Möglichkeiten einer Energiegewinnung auf biogener Basis (z. B. Biokraftstoffe, Ganzpflanzenverbrennung, Restholz- und Reststrohnutzung) hinsichtlich ihrer Umweltverträglichkeit untersucht und bewertet. Diese "ganzheitliche" Methode umfaßt die Umweltauswirkungen für den gesamten Lebensweg der Energieträger, also einschließlich aller der eigentlichen landwirtschaftlichen Produktion vor- und nachgelagerten Prozesse. Das Buch mit seiner Fülle an zusammengetragenen und bewerteten Daten wird ein wichtiges Instrument der Forschungseinrichtungen, der Industrie und der Behörden werden.USP: Einzige umfassende Bilanzierung aller nachwachsenden Rohstoffe