Mussolini s Intellectuals

Author: A. James Gregor
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691120096
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Fascism has traditionally been characterized as irrational and anti-intellectual, finding expression exclusively as a cluster of myths, emotions, instincts, and hatreds. This intellectual history of Italian Fascism--the product of four decades of work by one of the leading experts on the subject in the English-speaking world--provides an alternative account. A. James Gregor argues that Italian Fascism may have been a flawed system of belief, but it was neither more nor less irrational than other revolutionary ideologies of the twentieth century. Gregor makes this case by presenting for the first time a chronological account of the major intellectual figures of Italian Fascism, tracing how the movement's ideas evolved in response to social and political developments inside and outside of Italy. Gregor follows Fascist thought from its beginnings in socialist ideology about the time of the First World War--when Mussolini himself was a leader of revolutionary socialism--through its evolution into a separate body of thought and to its destruction in the Second World War. Along the way, Gregor offers extended accounts of some of Italian Fascism's major thinkers, including Sergio Panunzio and Ugo Spirito, Alfredo Rocco (Mussolini's Minister of Justice), and Julius Evola, a bizarre and sinister figure who has inspired much contemporary "neofascism." Gregor's account reveals the flaws and tensions that dogged Fascist thought from the beginning, but shows that if we want to come to grips with one of the most important political movements of the twentieth century, we nevertheless need to understand that Fascism had serious intellectual as well as visceral roots.

Piero Gobetti and the Politics of Liberal Revolution

Author: J. Martin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230616860
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Piero Gobetti was a radical liberal and critic of Italian politics in the years after World War I, he proposed 'revolutionary liberalism', which guided his opposition to Fascism and inspired key figures in the Italian Resistance. Accessible but critical, this volume is offers a balanced assessment of his enduring significance.

From Benito Mussolini to Hugo Chavez

Author: Paul Hollander
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108107613
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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During the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, political dictators were not only popular in their own countries, but were also admired by numerous highly educated and idealistic Western intellectuals. The objects of this political hero-worship included Benito Mussolini, Adolph Hitler, Joseph Stalin, Mao Zedong, Fidel Castro and more recently Hugo Chavez, among others. This book seeks to understand the sources of these misjudgements and misperceptions, the specific appeals of particular dictators, and the part played by their charisma, or pseudo-charisma. It sheds new light not only on the political disposition of numerous Western intellectuals - such as Martin Heidegger, Eric Hobsbawm, Norman Mailer, Ezra Pound, Susan Sontag and George Bernard Shaw - but also on the personality of those political leaders who encouraged, and in some instances helped to design, the cult surrounding their rise to dictatorship.

Fascism Liberalism and Europeanism in the Political Thought of Bertrand de Jouvenel and Alfred Fabre Luce

Author: Daniel Knegt
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
ISBN: 9048533309
Format: PDF
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Despite the recent rise in studies that approach fascism as a transnational phenomenon, the links between fascism and internationalist intellectual currents have only received scant attention. This book explores the political thought of Bertrand de Jouvenel and Alfred Fabre-Luce, two French intellectuals, journalists and political writers who, from 1930 to the mid-1950s, moved between liberalism, fascism and Europeanism. Daniel Knegt argues that their longing for a united Europe was the driving force behind this ideological transformation. While defeat and occupation led both intellectuals to fascination and intellectual collaboration with the German-led European order, the post-war period saw them affiliate with the extreme right and contribute to its intellectual renewal. Paradoxically at the same time, Jouvenel reinvented himself as a leading neoliberal theorist and founding member of the Mont Pèlerin Society. Provocative and innovative, this study traces the intellectual links between fascism, Europeanism and early neoliberalism.

Mind Vs Money

Author: Alan S. Kahan
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 1412828775
Format: PDF, Mobi
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For the past 150 years, Western intellectuals have trumpeted contempt for capitalism and capitalists. They have written novels, plays, and manifestos to demonstrate the evils of the economic system in which they live. Dislike and contempt for the bourgeoisie, the middle classes, industry, and commerce have been a prominent trait of leading Western writers and artists. Mind vs. Money is an analytical history of how and why so many intellectuals have opposed capitalism. It is also an argument for how this opposition can be tempered. Historically, intellectuals have expressed their rejection of capitalism through many different movements, including nationalism, anti-Semitism, socialism, fascism, communism, and the 1960s counterculture. Hostility to capitalism takes new forms today. The anti-globalization, Green, communitarian, and New Age movements are all examples. Intellectuals give such movements the legitimacy and leadership they would otherwise lack. What unites radical intellectuals of the nineteenth century, communists and fascists of the twentieth, and anti-globalization protestors of the twenty-first, along with many other intellectuals not associated with these movements, is their rejection of capitalism. Kahan argues that intellectuals are a permanently alienated elite in capitalist societies. In myriad forms, and on many fronts, the battle between Mind and Money continues today. Anti-Americanism is one of them. Americans like to see their country as a beacon of freedom and prosperity. But in the eyes of many European and American intellectuals, when America is identified with capitalism, it is transformed from moral beacon into the "Great Satan." This is just one of the issues Mind vs. Money explores. The conflict between Mind and Money is the great, unresolved conflict of modern society. To end it, we must first understand it.

Mussolini and Italian Fascism

Author: Giuseppe Finaldi
Publisher: Pearson Education
ISBN: 9781405812535
Format: PDF
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Fascism was one of the defining experiences of the European 20th Century. Within it many of the economic, political, social and cultural contradictions that had been brewing in the unprecedented transformation that European society underwent in the 19th and early 20th century came to a head. Mussolini, the man who most fashioned Italian Fascism, dramatically expressed the unease and the hopes of his age. To what extent can we compare Mussolini's Italy to Hitler's Germany or Stalin's Russia? What legacy has the experience of Fascism left behind in Italy and in Europe? These and many more important questions are explored in Finaldi's introduction to one of the most important movements of the European 20th Century.

The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies

Author: Michael Freeden
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191663719
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This is the first comprehensive volume to offer a state of the art investigation both of the nature of political ideologies and of their main manifestations. The diversity of ideology studies is represented by a mixture of the range of theories that illuminate the field, combined with an appreciation of the changing complexity of concrete ideologies and the emergence of new ones. Ideologies, however, are always with us. The Handbook is divided into three sections: The first is divided into three sections: The first reflects some of the latest thinking about the development of ideology on an historical dimension, from the standpoints of conceptual history, Marx studies, social science theory and history, and leading schools of continental philosophy. The second includes some of the most recent interpretations and theories of ideology, all of which are sympathetic in their own ways to its exploration and close investigation, even when judiciously critical of its social impact. This section contains many of the more salient contemporary accounts of ideology. The third focuses on the leading ideological families and traditions, as well as on some of their cultural and geographical manifestations, incorporating both historical and contemporary perspectives. Each chapter is written by an expert in their field, bringing the latest approaches and understandings to their task. The Handbook will position the study of ideologies in the mainstream of political theory and political analysis and will attest to its indispensability both to courses on political theory and to scholars who wish to take their understanding of ideologies in new directions.

Author: Ian Kershaw
Publisher: Patakis
ISBN: 9601645632
Format: PDF, Docs
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Μια βαθιά διορατική κοινωνική ιστορία της ανόδου του Χίτλερ στην εξουσία και των στάσεων που τήρησε ο γερμανικός λαός κατά τη διάρκεια της περιόδου του Τρίτου Ράιχ.Βασισμένο σε τρεις και πλέον δεκαετίες εξαντλητικής ιστοριογραφικής έρευνας γύρω από τη ναζιστική Γερμανία, το βιβλίο του Kershaw συνθέτει για πρώτη φορά τις σημαντικότερες και πιο σημαίνουσες πτυχές της έρευνας του διαπρεπούς Βρετανού ιστορικού για το Ολοκαύτωμα. Τα κεφάλαια είναι δομημένα σε τρεις ενότητες –ο Χίτλερ και η Τελική Λύση, η κοινή γνώμη και οι Εβραίοι στη ναζιστική Γερμανία, και η Τελική Λύση στην ιστοριογραφία– ενώ ο συγγραφέας προσφέρει επίσης μια εισαγωγή, και έναν επίλογο για τη μοναδικότητα του ναζισμού. Ο ιστορικός Ian Kershaw είναι θεμελιωτής της κοινωνικής ιστορίας του Τρίτου Ράιχ και σε όλη τη διάρκεια της καριέρας του διεξήγε πρωτοποριακές έρευνες για τα κοινωνικά αίτια και τις επιπτώσεις της ναζιστικής πολιτικής. Με το έργο του έχει φέρει στο φως αμέτρητα στοιχεία ως προς τους τρόπους με τους οποίους οι διάφορες στάσεις που υιοθέτησε ο γερμανικός λαός διαμόρφωσαν ή δε διαμόρφωσαν τη ναζιστική πολιτική. Ο παρών τόμος προσφέρει μια σφαιρική, πολυεπίπεδη εικόνα τόσο της ολέθριας δυναμικής της ναζιστικής ηγεσίας όσο και της στάσης και συμπεριφοράς απλών Γερμανών ενόσω ο διωγμός των Εβραίων κλιμακωνόταν για να πάρει τη μορφή ολοσχερούς γενοκτονίας.

Mental Maps in the Era of Two World Wars

Author: Jonathan Wright
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 9780230007161
Format: PDF
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This book explores the 'mental maps' of twelve leaders during the era of two world wars. It has chapters on the giants of these years, men like Lloyd George, Lenin, Streseman, Mussolini, Hitler, Roosevelt and Churchill, whose ideas cast a compelling shadow. It also has essays on important figures who are not always at the forefront of the literature on this period, men such as Atatuerk, Benes, Chiang, Poincaré and Mao.