Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

Author: Tetsuo Soga
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080468303
Format: PDF, ePub
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Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion covers a wide variety of materials and device types from inorganic materials to organic materials. This book deals with basic semiconductor physics, modelling of nanostructured solar cell, nanostructure of conventional solar cells such as silicon, CIS and CdTe, dye-sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell, photosynthetic materials, fullerene, extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cell, quantum structured solar cell, intermediate band solar cell, carbon nanotube, etc. including basic principle and the latest results. There are many books written on conventional p-n junction solar cells, but few books focus on new concepts in this area. * Focuses on the use of nanostructured materials for solar energy * Looks at a wide variety of materials and device types * Covers both organic and inorganic materials

Nanostructured Materials

Author: Gerhard Wilde
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080914237
Format: PDF
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This book focuses on functional aspects of nanostructured materials that have a high relevance to immediate applications, such as catalysis, energy harvesting, energy storage, optical properties and surface functionalization via self-assembly. Additionally, there are chapters devoted to massive nanostructured materials and composites and covering basic properties and requirements of this new class of engineering materials. Especially the issues concerning stability, reliability and mechanical performance are mandatory aspects that need to be regarded carefully for any nanostructured engineering material.

Nanoenergy

Author: Flavio L Souza
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319628003
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book discuss the recent advances and future trends of nanoscience in solar energy conversion and storage. This second edition revisits and updates all the previous book chapters, adding the latest advances in the field of Nanoenergy. Four new chapters are included on the principles and fundamentals of artificial photosynthesis using metal transition semiconductors, perovskite solar cells, hydrogen storage and neutralization batteries. More fundamental aspects can be found in this book, increasing the comparison between theory-experimental achievements and latest developments in commercial devices.

Tuning Energy Transport in Solar Thermal Systems Using Nanostructured Materials

Author: Andrej Lenert
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured materials allow us to tune the spectral properties and heat transfer behavior to enable such systems. However, under high temperature conditions, thermal management, system optimization and minimization of parasitic losses are necessary to achieve competitive solar power generation. This thesis seeks to achieve spectral control and thermal management through manipulation of nanostructured materials. First, this thesis presents the design and development of a nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) that harnesses the full spectrum of the sun, in a solid-state and scalable way. Through device optimization and control over spectral properties at high temperatures (~1300 K), a device that is 3 times more efficient than previous STPVs is demonstrated. To achieve this result, a framework was developed to identify which parts of the spectrum are critical and to guide the design of nanostructured absorbers and emitters for STPVs. The work elucidated the relative importance of spectral properties depending on the operating regime and device geometry. Carbon nanotubes and a silicon/silicon dioxide photonic crystal were used to target critical properties in the high solar concentration regime; and two-dimensional metallic photonic crystals were used to target critical properties in the low solar concentration regime. A versatile experimental platform was developed to interchangeably test different STPV components without sacrificing experimental control. In addition to demonstrating significant improvements in STPV efficiency, an experimental procedure to quantify the energy conversion and loss mechanisms helped improve and validate STPV models. Using these validated models, this thesis presents a scaled-up device that can achieve 20% efficiencies in the near term. With potential integration of thermal-based storage, such a technology can supply power efficiently and on-demand, which will have significant implications for adoption of STPVs. Second, the thesis shifts focus away from solid-state systems to thermal-fluid systems. A new figure of merit was proposed to capture the thermal storage, heat transfer and pumping power requirements for a heat transfer fluid is a solar thermal system. Existing and emerging fluids were evaluated based on the new metric as well as practical issues. Finally, sub-micron phase change material (PCM) suspensions are investigated for simultaneous enhancement of local heat transfer and thermal storage capacity in solar thermal systems. A physical model was developed to explain the local heat transfer characteristics of a flowing PCM suspension undergoing melting. A mechanism for enhancement of heat transfer through.control over the distribution of PCM particles inside a channel was discovered and explained. Together, this thesis makes significant contributions towards improving our understanding of the role and the effective use of nanostructured materials in solar thermal systems.

Nanostructured Materials for Next Generation Energy Storage and Conversion

Author: Ying-Pin Chen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662535149
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Volume 1 of a 4-volume series is a concise, authoritative and an eminently readable and enjoyable experience related to hydrogen production, storage and usage for portable and stationary power. Although the major focus is on hydrogen, discussion of fossil fuels and nuclear power is also presented where appropriate. This monograph is written by recognized experts in the field, and is both timely and appropriate as this decade will see application of hydrogen as an energy carrier, for example in transportation sector. The world's reliance on fossil fuels is due to the ever growing need for energy to sustain life and on-going progress; however exploitation also brings consequences such as emission of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur dioxides into the atmosphere. The collective influence of these photochemical gases is production of acid rain and an alternation of global temperatures, leading to record high temperatures in many parts of the world. The fossil fuel is unsustainable and thus there is a critical need for alternative sustainable energy resources. One universal energy carrier is hydrogen, which is the focus of this volume. This book is suitable for those who work in the energy field as technical experts, including engineers and scientists, as well as managers, policy and decision-makers, environmentalists and consultants. Students and practitioners such as lectures, teachers, legislators and their aids in the field of energy will find this book invaluable and a practical handbook or guide in the field of sustainable energy with emphasis on hydrogen as an energy carrier.

Nanostructured materials in alternative energy devices

Author: Erik M. Kelder
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Most of today's energy needs are met by fossil fuels (finite reserves), but these fuels may be abandoned much sooner if clean and renewable energy sources can provide a more attractive alternative-both environmentally and economically. The main problem with energy conversion and storage technologies, however, continues to be device efficiency. Projects based on nanoscale-range materials offer new or improved technologies in devices involving electrochemical reactions and heterogeneous catalysis, such as fuel and solar cells, batteries, etc. Nanoscale structures dramatically alter surface reaction rates and electrical transport throughout the material, causing dramatic improvement in energy storage, conversion and generation. In addition, the design of nanoscale materials for alternative energy devices is a predictable way to develop a wide range of new technologies for a healthy future. This volume from the Materials Research Society addresses relevant electrochemical and catalytic properties of nanomaterials-materials with nano-architecture-in order to improve the performance of alternative energy devices. Topics include: lithium-ion batteries; solar cells; fuel cells; and hydrogen storage devices. Focus is on synthesis, characterization and use.

Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics

Author: Loucas Tsakalakos
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420076752
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Current concerns regarding greenhouse gas-related environmental effects, energy security, and the rising costs of fossil fuel-based energy has renewed interest in solar energy in general and photovotaics in particular. Exploring state-of-the-art developments from a practical point of view, Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics examines issues in increasing efficiency, decreasing costs, and how these two goals can be achieved in a single photovoltaic device. It provides fundamental background and places research approaches within the proper physical context as related to photovoltaics performance enhancement. The book reviews the applications of devices and their performance requirements, followed by coverage of thin films and advanced band structure concepts for obtaining efficiencies above the Shockley–Queisser single bandgap efficiency limit of ~31%. The editor and contributors also discuss the basic optical properties of nanostructured materials as related to photovoltaics applications and describes nanoscale optoelectronic device physics related to performance. They then explore recent literature in the application of various classes of nanostructures to photovoltaics. The book covers solar cells based on hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites structures, quantum wells, nanowires/tubes, and quantum dots. It also discusses the use of nanoparticles/quantum dots to enhance the performance of conventional solar cells and luminescent solar concentrators. Each chapter summarizes the historical development for the nanostructure class under consideration, applications beyond photovoltaics, and the major synthetic methods, followed by a critique of leading works that have employed the particular nanostructure type. The book examines the advantages of each nanostructure approach and the remaining technical challenges, with an emphasis on possible future areas of research interest. It concludes with a summary of the major processing approaches and challenges of using the various nanostructures to photovoltaics applications, focusing on future scale-up and nanomanufactuting issues. Many books cover photovoltaics and many others nanotechnology — it is the coverage of both in one resource that sets this book apart.

NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS FOR H

Author: Xiang Liu
Publisher: Open Dissertation Press
ISBN: 9781361034804
Format: PDF, ePub
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This dissertation, "Nanostructured Materials for High Performance Energy Storage and Conversion Devices" by Xiang, Liu, 劉翔, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: With the growth of population and changing of the lifestyles, our global energy demands is increasing dramatically. Since the traditional fossil fuel resource is very limited, it is necessary and urgent to pursuit sustainable energy alternatives, including both green energy sources and sustainable energy storage systems. Solar energy is the most promising alternative of clean energy source, since it is clean, abundance and widely available at most places on the earth. Recently, the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has attracted increasing research interests for its low cost and long lifetime. Moreover, to make the best use of the energy sources, it is needed to develop suitable energy storage system. Lithium ion battery (LIB) has becoming the key technology for energy storage, especially in recent years. It has been widely used in portable devices like smart phones, PCs and wearable electronic devices. More importantly, due to the high energy density of lithium ion battery, it has become the most promising and critical energy storage technologies for electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). In both DSSCs and LIBs, metal oxides represent important parts of the devices. This dissertation covers the basic principle as well as the strategies for performance enhancing of both lithium ion batteries and dye-sensitized solar cells. Various TiO2 based anode materials for LIBs were investigated. The morphology and structure would significant affect the lithium storage of TiO2 anode; a simple in situ fabrication procedure was developed to further enhance the capacity of TiO2 nanotube anode. Moreover, in order to develop high energy density materials, SnO2 based anode materials were investigated. Composite materials of tin and copper oxides on CNT matrix as well as Al2O3 stabilized SnO2 hollow sphere with GO wrapped anodes were fabricated and studied. The composite anode is an efficient way to increase the stability of the electrode upon cycling. For the energy conversion, ZnO-based DSSCs were studied. We developed a low temperature (150C) procedures for ZnO-based DSSCs, the low temperature procedure is less energy consuming, and may have the potential usage on future flexible devices. Subjects: Nanostructured materials Metallic oxides Lithium ion batteries - Materials Solar cells - Materials

The Chemistry of Nanostructured Materials

Author: Peidong Yang
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814313068
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book is a sequel to the first volume of The Chemistry of Nanostructured Materials. It covers the most exciting developments in the nanostructured materials field for the past five to ten years, with a particular focus on their applications in energy conversion and energy storage. Prominent authors of recognized authority in the field contribute their expertise in the review chapters.

Nanostructured Materials for Next Generation Energy Storage and Conversion

Author: Fan Li
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662563649
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The energy crisis and pollution have posed significant risks to the environment, transportation, and economy over the last century. Thus, green energy becomes one of the critical global technologies and the use of nanomaterials in these technologies is an important and active research area. This book series presents the progress and opportunities in green energy sustainability. Developments in nanoscaled electrocatalysts, solid oxide and proton exchange membrane fuel cells, lithium ion batteries, and photovoltaic techniques comprise the area of energy storage and conversion. Developments in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and hydrogen (H2) storage using tunable structured materials are discussed. Design and characterization of new nanoscaled materials with controllable particle size, structure, shape, porosity and band gap to enhance next generation energy systems are also included. The technical topics covered in this series are metal organic frameworks, nanoparticles, nanocomposites, proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalysts, solid oxide fuel cell electrode design, trapping of carbon dioxide, and hydrogen gas storage.