Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis

Author: Reza Razeghifard
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118659759
Format: PDF, ePub
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This technical book explores current and future applications of solar power as an unlimited source of energy that earth receives every day. Photosynthetic organisms have learned to utilize this abundant source of energy by converting it into high-energy biochemical compounds. Inspired by the efficient conversion of solar energy into an electron flow, attempts have been made to construct artificial photosynthetic systems capable of establishing a charge separation state for generating electricity or driving chemical reactions. Another important aspect of photosynthesis is the CO2 fixation and the production of high energy compounds. Photosynthesis can produce biomass using solar energy while reducing the CO2 level in air. Biomass can be converted into biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Under certain conditions, photosynthetic organisms can also produce hydrogen gas which is one of the cleanest sources of energy.

Photosynthesis

Author: Dmitry Shevela
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing
ISBN: 9813223138
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Photosynthesis has been an important field of research for more than a century, but the present concerns about energy, environment and climate have greatly intensified interest in and research on this topic. Research has progressed rapidly in recent years, and this book is an interesting read for an audience who is concerned with various ways of harnessing solar energy. Our understanding of photosynthesis can now be said to have reached encyclopedic dimensions. There have been, in the past, many good books at various levels. Our book is expected to fulfill the needs of advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in branches of biology, biochemistry, biophysics, and bioengineering because photosynthesis is the basis of future advances in producing more food, more biomass, more fuel, and new chemicals for our expanding global human population. Further, the basics of photosynthesis are and will be used not only for the above, but in artificial photosynthesis, an important emerging field where chemists, researchers and engineers of solar energy systems will play a major role.

Energy Conversion in Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis

Author: Katharina Brinkert
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331977980X
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book discusses the basic principles and processes of solar energy conversion in natural photosynthesis. It then directly compares them with recent developments and concepts currently being pursued in artificial photosynthetic systems that are capable of utilizing sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into a chemical fuel. In this regard, the main focus is on photoelectrochemical cells, in which semiconducting photoanodes and -cathodes modified with (electro-) catalysts are used to oxidize water, produce hydrogen and reduce carbon dioxide in a monolithic device. The fundamental photochemical and photophysical processes involved are presented and discussed, along with protection mechanisms and efficiency calculations for both natural and artificial photosynthesis. In turn, key parameters that are crucial for the efficient operation of natural photosynthesis are identified. Lastly, their validity and applicability in the design of artificial solar-driven water-splitting systems are examined.

Biomass and Biofuels from Microalgae

Author: Navid Reza Moheimani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319166409
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This comprehensive book details the most recent advances in the microalgae biological sciences and engineering technologies for biomass and biofuel production in order to meet the ongoing need for new and affordable sources of food, chemicals and energy for future generations. The chapters explore new microalgae cultivation techniques, including solid (biofilm) systems, and heterotrophic production methods, while also critically investigating topics such as combining wastewater as a source of nutrients, the effect of CO2 on growth, and converting biomass to methane through anaerobic digestion. The book highlights innovative bioproduct optimization and molecular genetic techniques, applications of genomics and metabolomics, and the genetic engineering of microalgae strains targeting biocrude production. The latest developments in microalgae harvesting and dewatering technologies, which combine biomass production with electricity generation, are presented, along with detailed techno-economic modeling. This extensive volume was written by respected experts in their fields and is intended for a wide audience of researchers and engineers.

Molecular Solar Fuels

Author: Thomas John Wydrzynski
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1849730342
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Written by experts, this book presents the latest knowledge and chemical prospects in developing hydrogen as a solar fuel.

Current challenges in photosynthesis From natural to artificial

Author: Harvey J.M. Hou
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889192865
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Jules Verne (1828-1905), author of Around the World in Eighty Days (1873) and Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), wrote in 1875 “I believe that water will one day be used as a fuel, because the hydrogen and oxygen which constitute it, used separately or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light. I therefore believe that, when coal (oil) deposits are oxidised, we will heat ourselves by means of water. Water is the fuel of the future” Solar energy is the only renewable energy source that has sufficient capacity for the global energy need; it is the only one that can address the issues of energy crisis and global climate change. A vast amount of solar energy is harvested and stored via photosynthesis in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria since over 3 billion years. Today, it is estimated that photosynthesis produces more than 100 billion tons of dry biomass annually, which would be equivalent to a hundred times the weight of the total human population on our planet at the present time, and equal to a global energy storage rate of about 100 TW. The solar power is the most abundant source of renewable energy, and oxygenic photosynthesis uses this energy to power the planet using the amazing reaction of water splitting. During water splitting, driven ultimately by sunlight, oxygen is released into the atmosphere, and this, along with food production by photosynthesis, supports life on our earth. The other product of water oxidation is “hydrogen” (proton and electron). This ‘hydrogen’ is not normally released into the atmosphere as hydrogen gas but combined with carbon dioxide to make high energy containing organic molecules. When we burn fuels we combine these organic molecules with oxygen. The design of new solar energy systems must adhere to the same principle as that of natural photosynthesis. For us to manipulate it to our benefit, it is imperative that we completely understand the basic processes of natural photosynthesis, and chemical conversion, such as light harvesting, excitation energy transfer, electron transfer, ion transport, and carbon fixation. Equally important, we must exploit application of this knowledge to the development of fully synthetic and/or hybrid devices. Understanding of photosynthetic reactions is not only a satisfying intellectual pursuit, but it is important for improving agricultural yields and for developing new solar technologies. Today, we have considerable knowledge of the working of photosynthesis and its photosystems, including the water oxidation reaction. Recent advances towards the understanding of the structure and the mechanism of the natural photosynthetic systems are being made at the molecular level. To mimic natural photosynthesis, inorganic chemists, organic chemists, electrochemists, material scientists, biochemists, biophysicists, and plant biologists must work together and only then significant progress in harnessing energy via “artificial photosynthesis” will be possible. This Research Topic provides recent advances of our understanding of photosynthesis, gives to our readers recent information on photosynthesis research, and summarizes the characteristics of the natural system from the standpoint of what we could learn from it to produce an efficient artificial system, i.e., from the natural to the artificial. This topic is intended to include exciting breakthroughs, possible limitations, and open questions in the frontiers in photosynthesis research.

Sustainable Utilization of Natural Resources

Author: Prasenjit Mondal
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498761844
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Increased research is going on to explore the new cleaner options for the utilization of natural resources. This book aims to provide the scientific knowhow and orientation in the area of the emerging technologies for utilization of natural resources for sustainable development to the readers. The book includes production of energy and lifesaving drugs using natural resources as well as reduction of wastage of resources like water and energy for sustainable development in both technological as well as modeling aspects.

Electrochemically Enabled Sustainability

Author: Kwong-Yu Chan
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466575441
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Electrochemically Enabled Sustainability: Devices, Materials and Mechanisms for Energy Conversion covers topics related to current research in electrochemical power sources, highlighting some of the latest concepts in electrochemical conversion for sustainability. The book examines the most recent and innovative technologies employed in battery and fuel cell technology. It introduces the fundamental concepts applied to these electrochemical power sources and provides in-depth discussion on the materials, design, and performance of these devices. Written by internationally acclaimed experts, the chapters illustrate how key technologies for sustainability are enabled by electrochemical conversion. Topics include the reduction of carbon dioxide to resolve issues of carbon capture, energy storage, and generation of portable fuel; turning waste into energy using microbial fuel cells; the promise of vanadium redox flow batteries for massive energy storage; and improved performance of hybrid devices. The book addresses numerous aspects of lithium-type batteries for vehicle propulsion and energy storage, presenting a broad range of lithium batteries, and considering nano-structuring issues, layered-structure materials, and hierarchical structure. This book provides timely coverage of critical issues in emerging and conventional technologies, presenting a wide range of electrochemical devices, related materials, and operation mechanisms. It stimulates an appreciation for the novelty of these electrochemical power sources and offers a projection of future integration of these devices in practice.

Renewable Energy Technology

Author: Source Wikipedia
Publisher: University-Press.org
ISBN: 9781230592978
Format: PDF
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 45. Chapters: 3M, Aquanator, Artificial photosynthesis, CETO, Dysprosium, Evopod, H-Bio, Hybrid renewable energy system, IEEE Smart Grid, Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, NExBTL, Oyster wave energy converter, Pelamis Wave Energy Converter, Renewable energy power station, Renewable heat, Saltire Prize, Soft energy technology, Solar fuel, Solar power in Australia, Spider9, Vegetable oil refining, Wells turbine. Excerpt: Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicates the natural process of photosynthesis, a process that converts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. The term is commonly used to refer to any scheme for capturing and storing the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a fuel (a solar fuel). Photocatalytic water splitting converts water into protons (and eventually hydrogen) and oxygen, and is a main research area in artificial photosynthesis. Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is another studied process, replicating natural carbon fixation. Research developed in this field encompasses design and assembly of devices (and their components) for the direct production of solar fuels, photoelectrochemistry and its application in fuel cells, and engineering of enzymes and photoautotrophic microorganisms for microbial biofuel and biohydrogen production from sunlight. Many, if not most, of the artificial approaches are bio-inspired, i.e., they rely on biomimetics. The photosynthetic reaction can be divided into two half-reactions (oxidation and reduction), both of which are essential to producing fuel. In plant photosynthesis, water molecules are photo-oxidized to release oxygen and protons. The second stage of plant photosynthesis (also known as the Calvin-Benson cycle) is a light-independent reaction that converts carbon dioxide into glucose. Researchers of...

Die Differenzmaschine

Author: William Gibson
Publisher: Heyne Verlag
ISBN: 3641087562
Format: PDF
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Mit diesem Roman wurde der Steampunk erfunden London 1855: Das viktorianische England schickt sich an, dank seiner dampfbetriebenen Informationstechnologie ein neues, glücklicheres Zeitalter einzuleiten. Doch in dieser Ära des Aufbruchs und des technischen Fortschritts geraten vier Menschen in einen Strudel aus Brutalität, Gewalt und Zerstörung.