Naturalism and Philosophical Anthropology

Author: Phillip Honenberger
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137500883
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What is a human being? Philosophical anthropology has approached this question with unusual sophistication, experimentalism, and subtlety. This volume explores the philosophical anthropologies of Scheler, Gehlen, Plessner, and Blumenberg in terms of their relevance to contemporary theories of nature, naturalism, organic life, and human affairs.

Anthropology s Interrogation of Philosophy from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Century

Author: Jerome Fanning Marsden Carroll
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 1498558011
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Anthropology's Interrogation of Philosophy from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Century presents and discusses key aspects of the German tradition of philosophical anthropology from the eighteenth to the twentieth century, centering on the concept of anthropology as a study of the ‘whole, concrete man’ (Heinrich Weber, 1810). Philosophical anthropology appears during the last decades of the eighteenth century in the often practically-oriented writings of men such as Ernst Platner, Karl Wezel, and Johann Herder, and is then taken up in the twentieth century by thinkers including Max Scheler, Helmut Plessner, Arnold Gehlen, and Hans Blumenberg. In presenting this tradition, the book serves two primary purposes. Firstly, it introduces English readers in a coherent manner to key aspects of a two-hundred year tradition in German thought. Secondly, the book analyzes in an unprecedented manner, even in German scholarship, the connections between the philosophical debates associated with anthropology at the end of the eighteenth century and ongoing philosophical issues in the twentieth century. Specifically, author Jerome Carroll argues that late eighteenth century anthropology diverges pointedly from traditional, "foundational" approaches to philosophy, for instance rejecting philosophy’s quest for absolute foundations for knowledge or a priori categories and turning to a more descriptive account of man’s "being in the world." Notably, by drawing on the epistemological, ontological, and methodological aspects and implications of anthropological holism, this book reads the philosophical significance of classical twentieth century anthropology through the lens of eighteenth century writings on anthropology.

Moral Engines

Author: Cheryl Mattingly
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1785336940
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In the past fifteen years, there has been a virtual explosion of anthropological literature arguing that morality should be considered central to human practice. Out of this explosion new and invigorating conversations have emerged between anthropologists and philosophers. Moral Engines: Exploring the Ethical Drives in Human Life includes essays from some of the foremost voices in the anthropology of morality, offering unique interdisciplinary conversations between anthropologists and philosophers about the moral engines of ethical life, addressing the question: What propels humans to act in light of ethical ideals?

The Language Animal

Author: Charles Taylor
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674970276
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From Sources of the Self to A Secular Age, Charles Taylor has shown how we create ways of being, as individuals and as a society. Here, he demonstrates that language is at the center of this generative process. Language does not merely describe; it constitutes meaning, and the shared practice of speech shapes human experience.

Death and Finitude

Author: Sami Pihlström
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 1498524427
Format: PDF
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Death and Finitude offers an examination and defense of a pragmatic transcendental anthropology applicable to the concepts of limit, finitude, and mortality that are constitutive of human life as we know it. Sami Pihlström develops a special kind of philosophical anthropology —a pragmatic yet transcendental examination of the human condition—that interprets what is worth preserving in the tradition of transcendental philosophy in such a manner that this unusual combination will crucially enrich our understanding of a human problem we all share: mortality. Death and Finitude contributes to humanity’s on-going reflections on death, dying, and mortality—from a pragmatist yet transcendental perspective, seeking to accommodate these topics within a broader philosophical anthropology. The book is primarily intended for academic philosophers, but the potential readership includes not only scholars but also both graduate students and advanced undergraduates, as well as general educated readers. It is relevant to the concerns of philosophers specializing in transcendental philosophy, philosophical anthropology, pragmatism, Wittgenstein, and the philosophy of religion. As the book may be said to be an attempt to “philosophize historically,” it is in principle of interest to both systematically and historically oriented philosophers and students.

Naturalizing the Transcendental

Author: Sami Pihlström
Publisher: Prometheus Books
ISBN:
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Though it has often been claimed that pragmatism was formed as a synthesis of Kant and Darwin, most philosophers, including pragmatists themselves, have largely neglected Kant's crucial influence on pragmatist thinkers. In this powerful and original work, Finnish philosopher Sami Pihlström argues that the transcendental and the pragmatist traditions should converge, or at least supplement each other, instead of being regarded as rivals. According to Pihlström, Kant's basic transcendental project—i.e., of investigating the conditions of our ability to experience and represent structured reality—can be reconciled with a naturalist conception of the world and the place of human beings in it. He proposes a workable middle ground between extreme realism on the one hand and extreme postmodernist skepticism and relativism on the other. Divided into two main parts, Pihlström's task is, first, to provide a pragmatist and naturalized reconstruction of what transcendental philosophy is and, second, to apply transcendental arguments to epistemology, philosophy of science, and ethics. One of his principal points is that the dispute over the status of transcendental philosophy and its relation to naturalism should not be restricted to metaphysics and epistemology. Along with Kant, Pihlström views ethics as the crown of philosophical reflections on what it is to be a rational being experiencing a structured reality. He concludes by suggesting that a pragmatic moral realism ought to be seen as a transcendentally established principle within our natural human practices of ethical evaluation. This exciting rethinking of transcendental argumentation within a pragmatist, naturalistic framework, by a philosopher familiar with both analytic and Continental philosophy, makes a significant contribution to the development of the American philosophical tradition.

Phenomenology and the Transcendental

Author: Sara Heinämaa
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135138710
Format: PDF
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The aim of this volume is to offer an updated account of the transcendental character of phenomenology. The main question concerns the sense and relevance of transcendental philosophy today: What can such philosophy contribute to contemporary inquiries and debates after the many reasoned attacks against its idealistic, aprioristic, absolutist and universalistic tendencies—voiced most vigorously by late 20th century postmodern thinkers—as well as attacks against its apparently circular arguments and suspicious metaphysics launched by many analytic philosophers? Contributors also aim to clarify the relations of transcendental phenomenology to other post-Kantian philosophies, most importantly to pragmatism and Wittgenstein’s philosophical investigations. Finally, the volume offers a set of reflections on the meaning of post-transcendental phenomenology.

Cultural Evolution

Author: Tim Lewens
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199674183
Format: PDF, ePub
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This title exposes and evaluates a set of conceptual disputes concerning what we might mean by culture, and how we should go about accounting for it. Its particular focus is a set of evolutionary approaches to the genesis of the human capacity for culture, to subsequent cultural change, and to the ways in which genetic and cultural change interact, or 'co-evolve'. The book as a whole argues that there is little realistic hope that the social sciences might become unified around an evolutionary synthesis. Instead the defence of evolutionary approaches to culture must be more modest in scope

Becoming Human

Author: Chad Wellmon
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 0271048522
Format: PDF
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"Examines the crisis of a late eighteenth-century anthropology as it relates to the emergence of a modern consciousness that sees itself as condemned to draw its norms and very self-understanding from itself"--Provided by publisher.

Debating Humanity

Author: Daniel Chernilo
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107129338
Format: PDF, ePub
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Debating Humanity explores sociological and philosophical efforts to delineate key features of humanity that identify us as members of the human species. After challenging the normative contradictions of contemporary posthumanism, this book goes back to the foundational debate on humanism between Jean-Paul Sartre and Martin Heidegger in the 1940s and then re-assesses the implicit and explicit anthropological arguments put forward by seven leading postwar theorists: self-transcendence (Hannah Arendt), adaptation (Talcott Parsons), responsibility (Hans Jonas), language (Jrgen Habermas), strong evaluations (Charles Taylor), reflexivity (Margaret Archer) and reproduction of life (Luc Boltanski). Genuinely interdisciplinary and boldly argued, Daniel Chernilo has crafted a novel philosophical sociology that defends a universalistic principle of humanity as vital to any adequate understanding of social life.