Nature s Chemicals

Author: Richard Firn
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199566836
Format: PDF
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This is the first monograph to describe Natural Products (NPs) as a group in an evolutionary context. It synthesizes a widely dispersed literature and provides a general picture of natural products encompassing evolution, history, ecology, and environmental issues, along with some deeper theory relevant to biochemistry.

Dinner with Darwin

Author: Jonathan Silvertown
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022648923X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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What do eggs, flour, and milk have in common? They form the basis of waffles, of course, but these staples of breakfast bounty also share an evolutionary function: eggs, seeds (from which we derive flour by grinding), and milk have each evolved to nourish offspring. Indeed, ponder the genesis of your breakfast, lunch, or dinner, and you’ll soon realize that everything we eat and drink has an evolutionary history. In Dinner with Darwin, join Jonathan Silvertown for a multicourse meal of evolutionary gastronomy, a tantalizing tour of human taste that helps us to understand the origins of our diets and the foods that have been central to them for millennia—from spices to spirits. A delectable concoction of coevolution and cookery, gut microbiomes and microherbs, and both the chicken and its egg, Dinner with Darwin reveals that our shopping lists, recipe cards, and restaurant menus don’t just contain the ingredients for culinary delight. They also tell a fascinating story about natural selection and its influence on our plates—and palates. Digging deeper, Silvertown’s repast includes entrées into GMOs and hybrids, and looks at the science of our sensory interactions with foods and cooking—the sights, aromas, and tastes we experience in our kitchens and dining rooms. As is the wont of any true chef, Silvertown packs his menu with eclectic components, dishing on everything from Charles Darwin’s intestinal maladies to taste bud anatomy and turducken. Our evolutionary relationship with food and drink stretches from the days of cooking cave dwellers to contemporary crêperies and beyond, and Dinner with Darwin serves up scintillating insight into the entire, awesome span. This feast of soup, science, and human society is one to savor. With a wit as dry as a fine pinot noir and a cache of evolutionary knowledge as vast as the most discerning connoisseur’s wine cellar, Silvertown whets our appetites—and leaves us hungry for more.

Redox Homeostasis Managers in Plants under Environmental Stresses

Author: Nafees A. Khan
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889198782
Format: PDF, ePub
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The production of cellular oxidants such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an inevitable con-sequence of redox cascades of aerobic metabolism in plants. This milieu is further aggravated by a myriad of adverse environmental conditions that plants, owing to their sessile life-style, have to cope with during their life cycle. Adverse conditions prevent plants reaching their full genetic potential in terms of growth and productivity mainly as a result of accelerated ROS generation-accrued redox imbalances and halted cellular metabolism. In order to sustain ROS-accrued consequences, plants tend to manage a fine homeostasis between the generation and antioxidants-mediated metabolisms of ROS and its reaction products. Well-known for their involvement in the regulation of several non-stress-related processes, redox related components such as proteinaceous thiol members such as thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, and peroxiredoxin proteins, and key soluble redox-compounds namely ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) are also listed as efficient managers of cellular redox homeostasis in plants. The management of the cellular redox homeostasis is also contributed by electron carriers and energy metabolism mediators such as non-phosphorylated (NAD+) and the phosphorylated (NADP+) coenzyme forms and their redox couples DHA/AsA, GSSG/GSH, NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH. Moreover, intracellular concentrations of these cellular redox homeostasis managers in plant cells fluctuate with the external environments and mediate dynamic signaling in pant stress responses. This research topic aims to exemplify new information on how redox homeostasis managers are modulated by environmental cues and what potential strategies are useful for improving cellular concentrations of major redox homeostasis managers. Additionally, it also aims to pro-vide readers detailed updates on specific topics, and to highlight so far unexplored aspects in the current context.

Studies in Natural Products Chemistry

Author: Atta-ur-Rahman
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444639365
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Volume 53, covers the synthesis, testing, and recording of the medicinal properties of natural products, providing cutting-edge accounts of the fascinating developments in the isolation, structure elucidation, synthesis, biosynthesis, and pharmacology of a diverse array of bioactive natural products. Natural products in the plant and animal kingdom offer a huge diversity of chemical structures that are the result of biosynthetic processes that have been modulated over the millennia through genetic effects. With the rapid developments in spectroscopic techniques and accompanying advances in high-throughput screening techniques, it has become possible to isolate and then determine the structures and biological activity of natural products rapidly, thus opening up exciting opportunities in the field of new drug development to the pharmaceutical industry that are discussed and highlighted in this series. Focuses on the chemistry of bioactive natural products Contains contributions by leading authorities in the field Presents sources of new pharmacophores

Humans in Nature

Author: Gregory E. Kaebnick
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199347239
Format: PDF, Docs
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Contemporary debates over issues as wide-ranging as the protection of wildernesses and endangered species, the spread of genetically modified organisms, the emergence of synthetic biology, and the advance of human enhancement, all of which seem to spin into deeper and more baffling questions with every change in the news cycle, often circle back to the same fundamental question: should there be limits to the human alteration of the natural world? A growing number of people view the human capacity to alter natural states of affairs -- from formerly wild spaces and things around us to crops and livestock to our own human nature -- as cause for moral alarm. That reaction raises a number of perplexing philosophical questions, however: Can we identify "natural" states of affairs at all? Does the idea of being morally concerned about the human relationship to nature make any sense? Should such a concern influence public policy and politics, or should government stay strenuously neutral on such matters? Through a study of moral debates about the environment, agricultural biotechnology, synthetic biology, and human enhancement, Gregory E. Kaebnick, a research scholar at The Hastings Center and editor of the Hastings Center Report, argues that concerns about the human alteration of nature can be legitimate and serious, but also that they are complex, contestable, and of limited political force. Kaebnick defends attempts to identify "natural" states of affairs by disentangling the nature/artifact distinction from metaphysical hoariness. Drawing on David Hume, he also defends moral standards for the human relationship to nature, arguing that they, and moral standards generally, should be understood as grounded in what Hume called the "passions." Yet what counts as "natural" can be delineated only roughly, he concludes, and moral standards for interaction with nature are less a matter of obligation than of ideals. Kaebnick also concludes, drawing on an interpretation of the liberal principle of neutrality, that government may support those standards but must be careful not to enforce them. Thus Kaebnick looks for a middle way on debates that have tended toward polarization. "As differences between nature and artifact become steadily less substantial, problems about preservation run to the core of how people can make sense of themselves, of each other, and of our shared world. Kaebnick's solutions are creative and compelling, theoretically elegant and politically practical. Providing distinctive ways forward, when much academic and policy discussion seems exhausted, his book demands wide attention. In return, it inspires hope." - James Nelson, Michigan State University

Great Scientific Experiments

Author: Rom Harre
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486143600
Format: PDF
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Vivid, readable, accurate tales of landmark inquiries include Aristotle's work on embryology of the chick, Galileo's discovery of the law of descent, Newton's experiment on nature of colors, more.

Natural Products Chemistry

Author: Raymond Cooper
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466567627
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Notoriously cumbersome to isolate and challenging to synthesize, the path of natural products to viable drugs is an arduous journey. Yet compounds isolated from nature may possess fascinating structures, biological profiles and pharmaceutical potential far greater than anything made by man. Natural Products Chemistry: Sources, Separations and Structures presents a practical guide to sourcing, isolating, and discovering new compounds from nature many of which become pharmaceutical drugs. This book emphasizes the challenges and advantages of products acquired from nature, compared to those obtained from combinatorial chemistry. A basic introduction, the book describes the whole cycle from farm to final compound, backed up by case studies drawn from industry and research applications. It broadens the scope of applications and draws upon examples from various sources. Natural products chemistry, as taught today, draws its examples mainly from marine chemistry or plant chemistry; however, there is also a fascinating and rich world of fermented (microbial and algal) products leading to complex structures. Thus, the book draws upon examples from the microbial world and from insects too. Therefore, this is a source of bioactive metabolites, not traditionally available in academic settings, more the mainstay of the pharmaceutical industry. Providing a roadmap of the process of collecting a compound from nature, isolating the active ingredient, and determining the chemical structure, this book provides a unique approach to the world of natural products.

Understanding Toxicology

Author: H. Bruno Schiefer
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439805640
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Written in clear, simple language, this concise book introduces the lay person to the science of toxicology as it relates to daily living. The book provides a general overview of toxicology, presenting the facts and underlying principles needed by non-specialists for making decisions about potentially hazardous substances in everyday settings. Understanding Toxicology: Chemicals, Their Benefits and Risks will help you separate fact from fiction and better evaluate conflicting news reports on toxic substances and hazards. It's for everyone interested in chemical safety, toxic risks, pollution, hazardous wastes, and potential health hazards found in the home, at work, and in the environment.